Animal Farm by George Orwell (rlly Eric Blair) – 1945 Flashcard Example #97941

Introduction To Animal Farm
underline all titles of BOOKS
– author British George Orwell (<pseudonym) >>> real name: Eric Blair
– written in four months > done by 1944> published only in 1945
– hard to find a publisher due to critical view of Russia (> a US and British ally during WW2)
– hard to find a publisher due to paper shortage during the war
– Orwell also known for 1984 (a look at a futuristic totalitarian government where history is rewritten by protagonist – Winston Smith)>>> written in 1948 and published in 1949
– Animal Farm’s setting
o set on a farm in England
0 written for third person POV
0 Orwell used personification to give the animals human-like characteristics and personified them instead of using humans AS animals are more sympathetic creatures which ppl can relate to without feeling threatened or scared.
How can the novel be read?
– a history of communist Russia (starting with the 1917 communist revolution)
– a general political and social discussion about ideals, revolutions, and the abuse of power in a country (ABSOLUTE POWER CORRUPTS ABSOLUTELY)
– an attempt to create a utopia (perfect world)
– a simple fable which teaches a MORAL and uses personification for animals
– a fairy tale of imaginary things
;;; but fable and fairy tale cause us to suspend our disbelief in order to enjoy the story/stories!!!
Categorization of Animal Farm
– an allegory for the 1917 Russian Revolution. An allegory is a work of literature is which real things are represented with fictional characters or devices.
– a fable ; which uses animals to teach morals
– a fairy tale ; tales of the impossible which require us to suspend our disbelief in order to enjoy the story.
– satire ; something that pokes fun at something else ;;; humor often has a serious lesson and is meant to point out and inform the world about a vice/evil.
Cosmic Irony
– cosmic irony is when you think that you have the freedom to make your own decisions/to decide your own fate, but your fate has been predetermined by a greater force (God/Destiny/Fate)
;;; Sophocles’ Oedipus the King : mother and father think they can avoid their son’s said fate of killing his father and marrying his mother by abandoning him/attempting to kill him, but his fate has been predetermined and plays out as it was told

— The other plays connecting to Oedipus
Oedipus the king
– Oedipus at Colonus
– Antigone
>>> Antigone plot actually happens after Oedipus the King, but written before.

Chp.1
– How is Old Major’s dream of possible foreshadowing? > foreshadows the rebellion > warns against adopting the vices of humans upon the rebellion.
Introductory Characters and Allegoric Connections
-Old Major: big boar, represents Karl Marx
– Mollie: vain, lazy, arrogant, opposes animalism
– Boxer: strong but stupid horse
– Clover: motherly mare
> both Boxer and Clover represent Russian Peasants
– Muriel: goat
– Benjamin: old, cynical, donkey
– Moses: raven, symbol of organized religion
– Farmer Jones : original owner of what was initially Manor Farm (later would be animal farm and then manor farm again when the pigs establish a friendship with the humans in chp.10), represent final czar of Russia
Comrades =
friends
Sugarcandy Mountain =
animal heaven as endorsed by Moses the raven
What does Old Major want the animals to understand?
– humans are wicked
– they overwork animals
– they take the resources that animals produce
– they do not give the animals enough food
>>> wants to encourage them to revolt against mankind!!!
Bonus: “The Misfits”
– the last finished movie of both Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable in which horses are being made into dog food!!!
Theme of the Book
Absolute power corrupts absolutely!
Chp. 2
-How do the animals adopt communism into the seven principles of animalsim? – developed by the pigs (mainly Napoleon, Snowball, and Squealer) > the seven commandments
-How do the animals begin to live their lives devoid of human repression?- led by the pigs, seven commandments, burn all signs of humans/human life (bits, hats/ribbons, whips, etc.)
Foreshadowing Example
At the end of the chapter milk disappears> revealed in Chp. 3 that the pigs took it > say they need it to do brain-work to help the other animals> but really just the beginning of thier corruption and humanization
The Main Pigs
Napoleon and Snowball (kinda equal in beginning than just Napoleon as he uses his dogs to chase Snowball away).
Squealer is second in command (always) and the voice of propaganda > becomes Napoleon’s “vice-president” you could say (; Napoleon’s mouthpiece)
Bit =
piece put in a horses mouth
Mangels/Wurzels =
beets
Bonus: Red Lion
the bar that Farmer Jones goes to
Bonus: Marilyn Monroe
– famous movies: “Gentlemen Prefer Blonds”, “Some Like It Hot”, “The Seven Year Itch”
Bonus: Roman a clef
a fictional work that is often based on real people but they are disguised as fictional characters!
Chp.3
– Propaganda of the Pigs : see rest of set…
– In which ways do the pig leaders differ in the ways they want to run the farm? – take milk and apples (not rlly equality!)
– Squealer uses propaganda when saying the pigs need extra food (milk and apples) for brain-work, which is vital for the survival of Animal Farm.
Bonus: Rebecca Shaeffer
– an actress from “My Sister Sam”
– killed by an angry fan
>>> fans and paparazzi can be dangerous > Princess Diana (< died in a car crash while trying to escape the paparazzi!)
Bonus: “Now Voyager” (1942)
– a movie that glamorized smoking by making cigarette lighting seem romantic!!!
Can you really forget the puppies, that Napoleon secludes (> will one day be his protection and a source of power through fear!)?
NO! > we must suspend our disbelief
Snowball’s Initial Actions (a white pig)
– wants to help all animals ; committees for education and other things ; reading and writing most successful (; though still not for all!)
Napoleon’s Initial Actions (a black pig)
– only interested in educating the youth > took the puppies > will brainwash them to help his power > foreshadowing for Napoleon’s eventual absolute power!!!
Squealer’s Initial Actions/ General Role (a fat pig)
– second in command; the voice of propaganda > will rlly help Napoleon when Napoleon gains absolute power!!!
Chp.4
– How have the animals adopted human thinking patterns and behavior to outsmart humans? > Snowball uses Julius Caesar’s campaigns to create a battle tactic (; for the Battle of the Cowshed- which the animals expected- against Jones and other humans)
– Hay Harvest (initial one) was successful!
– How does the success of the animal farm influence other farms and their animal brethern? – incites some uprising due to pigeon propaganda but Animal Farm remains the only animal operated farm to the book’s conclusion!
Cynic
someone who believes that nothing changes for the better; negative > Benjamen
Pariah
a person who is an outcast; a person whom people avoid.
What happens on Sundays (< before Napoleon’s absolute power)?
the animals have meetings in the big barn
– talk about next week’s chores
– end by singing “Beasts of England”
Bonus- Cabaret
– musical set in Berlin, Germany in the 1930s!
posthumously
after death > like when you are given an award after death (posthumously)(like in the movie “Network”)
1984
– another book by Geroge Orwell (rlly Eric Blair) about a futuristic totalitarian government in which history is rewritten by Winston Smith!
impromptu
unplanned
What do the farmers think of Animal Farm?
always hate it > initially try to say bad things about it ( cannibalism, having their females in common – olgies) > Farmer’s slander of the animals!!!
;;; but they gradu. gain respect for it!!!
Chp.5
– How has Napoleon begun his reign of domination and control over the animal brethren (brothers)? – uses his dogs to kick out Snowball, uses name-calling propaganda against Snowball and rewrites history by (thru. Squealer) convincing the animals of a false past (; particularly concerning Snowball) in order to strengthen his power and backing by the “lower” animals!
Chp.6
– irony with the Sunday volunteering as voluntary but if you do not volunteer, your rations are cut in half!
– propaganda by Squealer: Snowball works with Jones!
– Pigs start to sleep in beds; rewriting commandments; rewriting history!!! ; move into the farmhouse!
– Start to have more contact with the outside world ; Mr. Whymper!!!
– a storm destroys what they have constructed of the windmill ; but Napoleon blames everything on Snowball!
Chp.7
– Snowball is used as a scapegoat for everything.
– more rewriting history through lies about and propaganda against Snowball and for Napoleon via Squealer!
– Foreshadowing: Squealer gives Boxer a dirty look when he trys to adovocate for Snowball’s actions during the Battle of the Cowshed!
– The false confessions occur here! > Clover silently questions Napoleon’s violence.
Bonus: Gale
– Dorothy Gale
– The Taming of the Shrew: What gale blows you to Padua!
How does the part of the chapter (7) where some of the animals admit to the crimes that they did not commit connect to both the communist Red Scare of the 1950s and Arthur Miller’s The Crucible (1953)?
– The Crucible (a severe test): is about the 1692 Salem, Mass. witch trials but is an allegory for the communist Red Scare (author is Arthur Miller- who was married to Marilyn Monroe for a short time and was actually accused of being a communist himself!)
>>> U.S. afraid of internal spread of communism > afflict those accused of it > celebrities particularly hunted as they can influence many people! > Lucile Ball (> went to court > husband said that the only red thing about her was her hair and said that even that came from a bottle) accused as was Lary Parks, whose career was almost ruined by accusation of communism!

>>>> Connection to Animal Farm? In the Crucible people confess to crimes which they did not commit, as occurs in Chps. 7 and 8 of Animal Farm
>>> confess to things they did not do perhaps as they feel as if they will get a lesser punishment, brainwashed, and/or just want to die as despite Squealer’s statistics of prosperity; the “lower” animals work longer hours and have less food then in Jones’ day by this time!

Dramatic License
when a author is given freedom to make some minor changes to a plot/tale depending on copyright restrictions
>>> in The Crucible the author Arthur Miller makes Abigail Williams (who was 7 in real life) 17 and adds an affair to her tale!!!
Chp.8
– the Battle of the Windmill
– pigs start to drink > think Napoleon is dying > just hangover > change commandments (no animal shall drink alcohol TO EXCESS!)
– more animals admit to crimes which they did not commit
– see Squealer with paint and fallen of a ladder > but only Benjaman understands but is too smart to say anything as donkeys live a long time.
Fortnight
2 weeks/ 14 days
Blacklist
result of the communist Red Scare of the 1950s
– list of ppl not allowed to work (< who are banned from being hired) as they are accused of communism)
Bonus: “Its a Wonderful Life”
a movie that is in now in the public domain > no copyright restrictions!
Senator Joseph McArthy
– stars communist red scare
> anti-communist > thinks its anti-american > starts trials and accusations!
mnemonic
a way to remember something!
Witchcraft Accusations / Witch Hunting
Why?
– witch hunters were paid well > lucrative (makes a lot of money) way of earning a living
– different ppl = distrust > elderly women accused of witchcraft > also easier to accuse women than men of witchcraft as women were more easily intimated and manipulated (brainwashed) to confess (< like in Animal Farm!)
– ppl accused others of witchcraft to get their land < witches could not own land
– ppl accused others of witchcraft as revenge
– in Europe and America, organized religion often incited witch accusations and hunting > as ppl who did not fear God were accused of being the Devil’s servant (; a witch)
Tests to determine if you were a witch…
– the water test: accused tied up and dunked into water 3 times ; sank :innocent; float: witch ; but many of the accused drowned before they could be set free.
– the devil’s (Satan’s) mark: shave accused’s body and examine for moles, marks, scars,etc. Poke the mark > no blood or pain > a witch < as the devil will not let his followers be harmed
– the witch cake: a cake of rye meal and the urine of “the afflicted victims” of the said witch would be fed to a dog. If the accused witch yelped out in pain (< as the invisible particles that she had “sent” to afflict the victims were believed to remain in their urine)> a witch!
– the corpse test: if an accused witch had been accused of murder > place the hands of the accused witch on the corpse > the corpse bleeds> a witch!
– the touch test: accused witch blindfolded and has a touch the acclaimed victim > victim yells> then the accused is rlly a witch < unfair
– the bible test: if accused weighed less than a heavy Bible > and could not recite the Lord’s Prayer without making a mistake ; a witch!
– find the witch and his/her familiar together: if the accused is with a cat or dog (familiar examples) ; agents of the devil disguised in animal form
– look for a third nipple: third nipple ; a witch!
Chp. 9
– How is dramatic irony shown in Chp.9 according to Boxer’s demise?- we know that Boxer was actually killed at the knackers, while the animals think that he died at a hospital due to Squealer’s persuasion ; only Benjaman out of the lower animals knows the truth but he keeps his mouth shut as donkeys live a long time
– Retired animal field ; barley field
– pigs get money for alcohol (as farm broke) by selling Boxer to the knackers!!!
– life worse than in Jones’ day for lower animals > but Squealer convinces them against it.
Social Security
we pay for it from our checks > deducted from checks (<tax deduction)
-ppl avoid paying it by working OFF THE BOOKS OR UNDER THE TABLE > don’t pay taxes!
Chp.10
– How is the old adage (old saying) “absolute power corrupts absolutely” proven true as evidenced by the complete control of the pigs? – pigs seem completely humanized ( ; human is the symbol of corruption; finalized and revealed to lower animals that upper animals torture lower animals and upper ppl torture a lower class.
– pigs and ppl finally friends!
– goodbye commandments: all animals are equal but some are more equal than others
;;; pigs walk on hind legs ; four legs good, two legs better!
– Napoleon gives the farm its old name back ;it is Manor Farm once again
– old ambition gone ; remove rebellion almost by taking away
Characters
– old major : dream of the rebellion
– Napoleon : becomes animal farm’s absolute ruler > tyrant > comes out rarely > speeches short and to the point
– Clover: motherly mare, particularly to ducklings
– Moses: raven > symbol of organized religion
– Squealer: voice of propaganda + Napoleon’s mouthpiece
– Minimus: poet, accomplice of Napoleon
– Mr. Whymper : intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world.
– Bluebell, Jessie, Pincher: mothers of Napoleon’s dogs
– Snowball: Napoleon’s opponent for power and scapegoat for all.
– Boxer: hardworking, devoted, yet stupid horse; sacrificed for whiskey
; Clover and Boxer both represent the loyal Russian peasants/proletariat in an allegoric sense ; Mr. AND Ms. Smith
– Benjamin : old, cynical donkey who is smart but does the same thing before and after the Rebellion and keeps his mouth shut as donkeys live a long time (; his quote).
– Mollie: vain, leaves, traitor, interacts with humans, ribbons
– Muriel: goat
– Mr. Jones: original owner of the farm; dies at an inebriates (alcoholic) home
– Pinkeye: food-tester for Napoleon as Napoleon is so important that they must prevent the chance of him being poisoned.
Literary Terminology
fiction: story about something not is not real
non-fiction: about real things/events
fable: moral taught through personified animals
fairy tale: tale of the impossible
;;; both require us to suspend our disbelief ; but particularly the fairy tale
allegory: a work of literature is which real things are represented by fictional characters/devices
dramatic irony: when the audience knows something that a character/ characters do not.
situational irony: the opposite of the expected occurs
verbal irony: sarcasm
– willing suspension of disbelief: the willingness of the audience to pretend that something that cannot happen can happen in order to enjoy the story
– foreshadowing: hinting to the future
– symbol: something that represents something else
– personification: when human characteristics are given to non-human things
– copyright: legal right to own books, movies, songs, etc.
– patent: legal right to own inventions
– pseudonym : a pen-name (french for pen-name is NOM DEPLUME)
– Utopia:a perfect world
– scapegoat: someone is blamed for an action which they did not commit
– stereotype : a statement which makes a generalization about a group of ppl.
;;; Jones/Smith ; common names ; stereotypes
Text Vocabulary
– stable and stall
–stable: horse house
–stall: seperate cage areas
– infanticide :infant killing
– matricide: mother killing
– patricide: father killing
– pension: social security money > w/retirement
– censorship: the practice of examining works for unacceptable parts
– rations: allotted portions
– brainwash: to make someone believe something
– barely : wheat
– hearse: a vehicle which transports a coffin to a funeral
– cannibalism : to eat your own kind
– perks: privileges
– dictatorship: absolute, often cruel, ruler government
– timber : wood
– inebriate: alcoholic

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