underline all titles of BOOKS
– written in four months > done by 1944> published only in 1945
– hard to find a publisher due to critical view of Russia (> a US and British ally during WW2)
– hard to find a publisher due to paper shortage during the war
– Orwell also known for 1984 (a look at a futuristic totalitarian government where history is rewritten by protagonist – Winston Smith)>>> written in 1948 and published in 1949
– Animal Farm’s setting
o set on a farm in England
0 written for third person POV
0 Orwell used personification to give the animals human-like characteristics and personified them instead of using humans AS animals are more sympathetic creatures which ppl can relate to without feeling threatened or scared.
– a general political and social discussion about ideals, revolutions, and the abuse of power in a country (ABSOLUTE POWER CORRUPTS ABSOLUTELY)
– an attempt to create a utopia (perfect world)
– a simple fable which teaches a MORAL and uses personification for animals
– a fairy tale of imaginary things
;;; but fable and fairy tale cause us to suspend our disbelief in order to enjoy the story/stories!!!
– a fable ; which uses animals to teach morals
– a fairy tale ; tales of the impossible which require us to suspend our disbelief in order to enjoy the story.
– satire ; something that pokes fun at something else ;;; humor often has a serious lesson and is meant to point out and inform the world about a vice/evil.
;;; Sophocles’ Oedipus the King : mother and father think they can avoid their son’s said fate of killing his father and marrying his mother by abandoning him/attempting to kill him, but his fate has been predetermined and plays out as it was told
— The other plays connecting to Oedipus
Oedipus the king
– Oedipus at Colonus
>>> Antigone plot actually happens after Oedipus the King, but written before.
– Mollie: vain, lazy, arrogant, opposes animalism
– Boxer: strong but stupid horse
– Clover: motherly mare
> both Boxer and Clover represent Russian Peasants
– Muriel: goat
– Benjamin: old, cynical, donkey
– Moses: raven, symbol of organized religion
– Farmer Jones : original owner of what was initially Manor Farm (later would be animal farm and then manor farm again when the pigs establish a friendship with the humans in chp.10), represent final czar of Russia
– they overwork animals
– they take the resources that animals produce
– they do not give the animals enough food
>>> wants to encourage them to revolt against mankind!!!
-How do the animals begin to live their lives devoid of human repression?- led by the pigs, seven commandments, burn all signs of humans/human life (bits, hats/ribbons, whips, etc.)
Squealer is second in command (always) and the voice of propaganda > becomes Napoleon’s “vice-president” you could say (; Napoleon’s mouthpiece)
– In which ways do the pig leaders differ in the ways they want to run the farm? – take milk and apples (not rlly equality!)
– Squealer uses propaganda when saying the pigs need extra food (milk and apples) for brain-work, which is vital for the survival of Animal Farm.
– killed by an angry fan
>>> fans and paparazzi can be dangerous > Princess Diana (< died in a car crash while trying to escape the paparazzi!)
– Hay Harvest (initial one) was successful!
– How does the success of the animal farm influence other farms and their animal brethern? – incites some uprising due to pigeon propaganda but Animal Farm remains the only animal operated farm to the book’s conclusion!
– talk about next week’s chores
– end by singing “Beasts of England”
;;; but they gradu. gain respect for it!!!
– propaganda by Squealer: Snowball works with Jones!
– Pigs start to sleep in beds; rewriting commandments; rewriting history!!! ; move into the farmhouse!
– Start to have more contact with the outside world ; Mr. Whymper!!!
– a storm destroys what they have constructed of the windmill ; but Napoleon blames everything on Snowball!
– more rewriting history through lies about and propaganda against Snowball and for Napoleon via Squealer!
– Foreshadowing: Squealer gives Boxer a dirty look when he trys to adovocate for Snowball’s actions during the Battle of the Cowshed!
– The false confessions occur here! > Clover silently questions Napoleon’s violence.
– The Taming of the Shrew: What gale blows you to Padua!
>>> U.S. afraid of internal spread of communism > afflict those accused of it > celebrities particularly hunted as they can influence many people! > Lucile Ball (> went to court > husband said that the only red thing about her was her hair and said that even that came from a bottle) accused as was Lary Parks, whose career was almost ruined by accusation of communism!
>>>> Connection to Animal Farm? In the Crucible people confess to crimes which they did not commit, as occurs in Chps. 7 and 8 of Animal Farm
>>> confess to things they did not do perhaps as they feel as if they will get a lesser punishment, brainwashed, and/or just want to die as despite Squealer’s statistics of prosperity; the “lower” animals work longer hours and have less food then in Jones’ day by this time!
>>> in The Crucible the author Arthur Miller makes Abigail Williams (who was 7 in real life) 17 and adds an affair to her tale!!!
– pigs start to drink > think Napoleon is dying > just hangover > change commandments (no animal shall drink alcohol TO EXCESS!)
– more animals admit to crimes which they did not commit
– see Squealer with paint and fallen of a ladder > but only Benjaman understands but is too smart to say anything as donkeys live a long time.
– list of ppl not allowed to work (< who are banned from being hired) as they are accused of communism)
> anti-communist > thinks its anti-american > starts trials and accusations!
– witch hunters were paid well > lucrative (makes a lot of money) way of earning a living
– different ppl = distrust > elderly women accused of witchcraft > also easier to accuse women than men of witchcraft as women were more easily intimated and manipulated (brainwashed) to confess (< like in Animal Farm!)
– ppl accused others of witchcraft to get their land < witches could not own land
– ppl accused others of witchcraft as revenge
– in Europe and America, organized religion often incited witch accusations and hunting > as ppl who did not fear God were accused of being the Devil’s servant (; a witch)
Tests to determine if you were a witch…
– the water test: accused tied up and dunked into water 3 times ; sank :innocent; float: witch ; but many of the accused drowned before they could be set free.
– the devil’s (Satan’s) mark: shave accused’s body and examine for moles, marks, scars,etc. Poke the mark > no blood or pain > a witch < as the devil will not let his followers be harmed
– the witch cake: a cake of rye meal and the urine of “the afflicted victims” of the said witch would be fed to a dog. If the accused witch yelped out in pain (< as the invisible particles that she had “sent” to afflict the victims were believed to remain in their urine)> a witch!
– the corpse test: if an accused witch had been accused of murder > place the hands of the accused witch on the corpse > the corpse bleeds> a witch!
– the touch test: accused witch blindfolded and has a touch the acclaimed victim > victim yells> then the accused is rlly a witch < unfair
– the bible test: if accused weighed less than a heavy Bible > and could not recite the Lord’s Prayer without making a mistake ; a witch!
– find the witch and his/her familiar together: if the accused is with a cat or dog (familiar examples) ; agents of the devil disguised in animal form
– look for a third nipple: third nipple ; a witch!
– Retired animal field ; barley field
– pigs get money for alcohol (as farm broke) by selling Boxer to the knackers!!!
– life worse than in Jones’ day for lower animals > but Squealer convinces them against it.
-ppl avoid paying it by working OFF THE BOOKS OR UNDER THE TABLE > don’t pay taxes!
– pigs and ppl finally friends!
– goodbye commandments: all animals are equal but some are more equal than others
;;; pigs walk on hind legs ; four legs good, two legs better!
– Napoleon gives the farm its old name back ;it is Manor Farm once again
– old ambition gone ; remove rebellion almost by taking away
– Napoleon : becomes animal farm’s absolute ruler > tyrant > comes out rarely > speeches short and to the point
– Clover: motherly mare, particularly to ducklings
– Moses: raven > symbol of organized religion
– Squealer: voice of propaganda + Napoleon’s mouthpiece
– Minimus: poet, accomplice of Napoleon
– Mr. Whymper : intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world.
– Bluebell, Jessie, Pincher: mothers of Napoleon’s dogs
– Snowball: Napoleon’s opponent for power and scapegoat for all.
– Boxer: hardworking, devoted, yet stupid horse; sacrificed for whiskey
; Clover and Boxer both represent the loyal Russian peasants/proletariat in an allegoric sense ; Mr. AND Ms. Smith
– Benjamin : old, cynical donkey who is smart but does the same thing before and after the Rebellion and keeps his mouth shut as donkeys live a long time (; his quote).
– Mollie: vain, leaves, traitor, interacts with humans, ribbons
– Muriel: goat
– Mr. Jones: original owner of the farm; dies at an inebriates (alcoholic) home
– Pinkeye: food-tester for Napoleon as Napoleon is so important that they must prevent the chance of him being poisoned.
non-fiction: about real things/events
fable: moral taught through personified animals
fairy tale: tale of the impossible
;;; both require us to suspend our disbelief ; but particularly the fairy tale
allegory: a work of literature is which real things are represented by fictional characters/devices
dramatic irony: when the audience knows something that a character/ characters do not.
situational irony: the opposite of the expected occurs
verbal irony: sarcasm
– willing suspension of disbelief: the willingness of the audience to pretend that something that cannot happen can happen in order to enjoy the story
– foreshadowing: hinting to the future
– symbol: something that represents something else
– personification: when human characteristics are given to non-human things
– copyright: legal right to own books, movies, songs, etc.
– patent: legal right to own inventions
– pseudonym : a pen-name (french for pen-name is NOM DEPLUME)
– Utopia:a perfect world
– scapegoat: someone is blamed for an action which they did not commit
– stereotype : a statement which makes a generalization about a group of ppl.
;;; Jones/Smith ; common names ; stereotypes
–stable: horse house
–stall: seperate cage areas
– infanticide :infant killing
– matricide: mother killing
– patricide: father killing
– pension: social security money > w/retirement
– censorship: the practice of examining works for unacceptable parts
– rations: allotted portions
– brainwash: to make someone believe something
– barely : wheat
– hearse: a vehicle which transports a coffin to a funeral
– cannibalism : to eat your own kind
– perks: privileges
– dictatorship: absolute, often cruel, ruler government
– timber : wood
– inebriate: alcoholic