(n.) a cause (person or thing) of affliction or suffering; a source of severe punishment or criticism
a holder attached to the gunwale of a boat that holds the oar in place and acts as a fulcrum for rowing
-To restore to freshness or of appearence or good condition
to disturb keenly or painfully
(n.) very great destruction, ruin; great confusion and disorder
(adj.) deadly, extremely harmful, evil; spiteful, malicious
one who robs or plunders
A lyric poem that laments the dead.
Expressing sorrow or lamentation
To attribute to a specific cause, source, or origin
a narrative having characters, a setting, symbols, and both literal and figurative meaning
undiminished in courage or valor
a person who becomes involved in a place or situation where they are not wanted or are considered not to belong.
violently angry and destructive behavior
Exercise of good and cautious judgement with regard to practical matters
to fail to honor a commitment, go back on a promise or deny
A raider, plunderer
a conference or discussion (especially between enemies)
Deep feeling of guilt or regret
(v) to WANDER, to work or travel around an area without any definite aim or direction
Anglo-Saxon Englishman who held land granted by the king or nobleman (One in service to the king)
Idiom for river
astute, shrewd, knowing
(n.) a principal idea, feature, theme, or element; a repeated or dominant figure in a design
(v.) – to increase gradually in size or degree (also part of candle)
To honor, to regard with respect
Dole out -v
distribute as charity; give out in small portions
A person or thing detested or loathed
a salutation wishing health to a person, used in England in early times when presenting a cup of drink or when drinking to the person.
The act of making amends
a person who is involved with something petty
A device employed in Anglo-Saxon poetry in which the name of a thing is replaced by one of its functions or qualities, as in “ring-giver” for king and “whale-road” for ocean.
Causing fear, apprehension, or dread
(n) an injury done in return for injury
Part of something that represents the whole thing. (ship=keel, heads=people)
Something which causes pain or suffering
Narrow passage between steep mts. or hills
To eat greedily
Having a reputation of the worst kind, vicious, notoriously bad
(n.) the home or den of a wild animal; any hideout
discolored from a bruise; reddened with anger
Causing hatred or disgust; repulsive
(v.) to wash away impurities, clean up;
(n.) the process of getting rid of something or someone decisively
claw of an animal, especially a bird of prey
Ironic understatement, especially if affirmative is expressed with negative (not bad at all)
“He cared little for battle”
Natural pause in the middle of a line. division made by the ending of a word within a foot, or sometimes at the end of a foot, especially in certain recognized places near the middle of a verse. Marked by double vertical line.
Christian and pagan/folklore elements. Beowulf acknowledges god as his protector.
Rhetoric figure of speech: using the name of one object/concept for that of another to which there is a relationship/part or that stands for the object /concept itself.
Counting heads = counting people
Giver of Rings = King
Iron = sword
Hints at things to come. Shield’s funeral foreshadows Beowulf’s.
References to prior events or information.
Any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality.
Lord of life = god
Consonantol alliteration: two or more stressed syllables of a word group either with the same consonant sound or sound group. (from stem to stern)
Vocalic alliteration: A vowel sound that may differ from syllable to syllable (each to all)
Two or more words of a group with the same letters (apt alliterations artful aid)
Anglo-Saxon Cultural Values
Comitatus and loyalty to one’s people/gods/God, etc.
Honoring debts, between generations, inter-/intra- tribe
Honoring promises/pledges, inter-/intra- tribe
Strength, physical and moral
Team-player/An understanding of one’s place in society/appropriately humble
Immortality came through a warrior’s fame
Sharing of spoils/goods
Generosity to tribe
Pride in self/family/community/country
Poems were generations old before being composed into text
Poems were rich in cultural tradition
The Hall/mead hall was the common recital room/auditorium (Herot/Heorot)
Performer/scop entertained the community through memorized recitals
Traditional Verse Structures:
Heroic–exemplification of deeds accomplished/boasts/boasting
Eulogy–praising/praise from others
Religious–noting God and Christian concepts; possibly dealing with fate