Chapter 7 & 8 Discovering the Life Span Flashcard Example #6162

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Emerging Adulthood
(18-25) some independence but still rely on parents
physical peak
age when body is physically at its best, point prior to start of decline
natural physical decline brought about by aging
Two components of senescence
Primary and secondary aging
primary aging
DNA, genetics (internal)
secondary aging
liefestyle choices (use of alchohol, drugs, tobacco)
_________ is the natural physical decline brought about by aging
At the age of _______, illness and disease overtake accidents as the leading cause of death
35 years
T/F compared to all other developed countries, one of the greatest risks for death in young adult men in the US is murder
binge drinking
purpose is to get drunk, altered state to the point it can be life threatening
date rape
Sexual assualt by a known person in a dating situation. Also called acquaintance rape.
physical addiction
(disease model), some type of withdrawal, increased intolerance (need more for the same feeling)
psychological addiction
(life process model) use substance as a habitual coping mechanism
Causes of death in young adulthood
car accidents, accidents, AIDS, cancer heart disease and suicide
Physical disabilities in young adulthood
condition that substantially limits a major life such as walking or vision
Mental disabilities in young adulthood
Impairments of the mind that substantially limit an individuals ability to engage in normal life activities
physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us
psychoneuroimmunolgy (PN)
study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors
stress: primary appraisal
assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are positive, negative or neutral
stress: secondary appraisal
assessment of whether ones coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the harm, threat or challenge posed by the potential stressor
psychosomatic illness
describing a disorder having physical symptoms but originating from psychological causes
effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress
emotion focused coping
conscious regulation of emotion
problem focused coping
managing a threatening situation by directly changing it to make it less stressful
personality characteristics asociated with a lower rate of stress related illness
Researchers in the field of ______ study the relationship among the brain, the immune system and psychological factors and have found stress can produce several outcomes
Avoiding thinking about a stressful situation by drinking, doing drugs or just denying the true nature of a situation are all examples of ________ coping
post formal thought
does not just think with logic but also that their are a variety of solutions and you can change your mind at a later date (based on new information)
Scahie’s stages of intellectual development
1. acquistion
2. acheiving
3. responsible
4. executive
5. reintegrate
Acquisition stage
(children and adolescents) learning things for the first time
achieving stage
(young adulthood) using knowledge to make choices, career, partner, community, children
responsible stage
(middle age) relating info you know to family, community, greater social world, have expertise
executive stage
self sacrifice (whats best for my society)
reintegrate stage
(older age) personal meaning spirituality, volunteerism, philanthropy
the combination of responses or ideas in novel ways
one sex feels superior to another
benevolent sexism
attention is given but is misguided
stereotype threat
“women tend to do better on this exam” which can influence behaviors such as success
Ginsberg Career Choice Theory
1. fantasy
2. tentative
3. reintegrate
Fantasy period
unobtainable options
tentative period
explore options
realistic period
(must choose) career consolidation where work is the center of life (20-40)
communal professions
relationship oriented
Hollands personality model
1. realistic personality
2. investigative personality
3. artistic personality
4. social personality
5. enterprising personality
6. conventional personality
agentic profession
getting things accomplished finishing task and projects
realistic personality type
work alone without time schedules (farmers)
investigative personality type
solve problems put pieces together (scientists)
artistic personality type
creativity, value nonconformity
social personality type
working with helping people (teacher, service sector)
enterprising personality type
people oriented (for a reason, sales, politician)
conventional personality type
routine, what is expected (accountants, secretaries)
The idea that proble solving in adulthood has to consider previous experiences, logical thinking and the relative benefits and costs to a decision is also known as _________________________
postformal thought
T/F Postformal thought and dialetical thinking acknowledge that the world sometimes lacks clearly right and wrong solutions to problems
Sternberg’s ______ theory of intellignece suggest that intelligence is made up of three major components
T/F Major life events can influence our cognitive development because positive and negative life circumstances lead us to think differently about our relationships with others, what’s important to us, our our place in the world
first year adjustment reaction
a cluster of psychological symptoms, including loneliness, anxiety, withdrawal, and depression, relating to the college experience suffered by first year college students
Only ____% of those who start college finish 4 years later
Although attending college is an important event in one’s life, the number of individuals who begin college _______
are in the minority
T/F More women than men attend and graduate from college, and the proportion of women, relative to men is increasing
Jared is having difficulty in his first year of college. Psychological symptoms include loneliness, anxiety, withdrawal and depression. It appears that Jared is suffering from a cluster of symptoms called ______
first year adjustment reaction
Failing to identify oneself as successful in a certain academic domain such as math and science for women and academics in general for African Americans is known as _________
academic disidentification
Eriksons intimacy vs isolation stage
period of postadolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close intimate relationships with others
stimulus value theory SVR
theory that relationships proceed in a fixed order of three stages: stimulus, value and role
stimulus stage
bulilt on surface, physical characteristics such as the way a person looks
value stage
usually occurs between the second and seventh encounter, characterized by increasing similarity of values and beliefs
role stage
relationship is built on specific roles played by the participants
romantic (passionate) love
state of powerful absorption in someone
companionate love
strong affection for those with whom our lives are deeply involved
Sternbergs triangle theory: three faces of love
intimacy, passion and decision/commitment
intimacy component
component of love that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection and connectedness
passion component
component of love that compromises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance
decision/commitment component
third aspet of love that emobdies both the initial cognition that one loves another person and the longer-term determination to maintain that love
fatuous love
a couple who decides to move in together after knowing each other for only 2 weeks
empty love
arranged marriage or a couple who have decided to stay married for the sake of the children
tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race education religion and other basic demographic characteristics
marriage gradient
tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller and lower in status and women to marry men who are slifghtly older, larger and higher in status
homosexual relationships
intimate relationships in which partner’s are of the same sex.
A situation in which two people live together, and think of themselves as a couple, without being legally married
According to Erikson, adults spend their early adult years ________
focusing on developing relationships with others
_______ love is the strong affection we have for those individuals with whom our lives are deeply involved
T/F According to Sternberg, to determine the type of love that best describes a relationship, one must look at the presence or absence of intimacy, passion and commitment
When asked why they want to have children, most young adults cite _________ reasons
social clock
influenced by greater society (expectations)
on time events
“normal” times for things to happen (marriages, births, deaths)
off time events
“not a normal” time for things to happen (child death, young person having baby, extreme age marriages)
Main factor that keeps relationships together is the level of ________________
stage of relationship where everything is wonderful, everything said is in awe
if you have all 3 components (passion, intimacy and committment)
passion + commitment, but do not have emotional initmacy (stalkers)
commitment only
commitment + emotional, intimacy but not a whole lot of passion
persons of opposite sex sharing living quarters (cohabitation)
___% of ;70 year olds support gay rights, ___% ;30 year olds support gay rights
30% ; 70%
wrong reasons to be a parent
keep/solidify relationship, someone to love me, ulterior motives, social pressure, mini me (maybe they will accomplish what I couldn’t)
Chronic illness is to be _______ not cured
People tend to die of an _____ episode of a chronic illness
Physical changes during middle age
weight changes, elasticity of skin decreases, presbyoptia & night vision, hearing changes, reaction time decreases
climateric change
females and male, slowing down of reproductive abilities (transition period)
female climateric change
transition between child bearing and menopause
male climateric change
sperm production, enlarged prostate gland
Type A personality
person who gets frustrated easily, controlling, competitive
Type B personality
more laid back, go with the flow
Type C personality
appears to have everything under control, but is seething underneath
Baltes (psychologist)
selective optimization with compensation (the things you can do well you do, the things that are difficult you make adjustments)
memory schema
learned techniques to store, retrieve information
Normative crisis model
looks at life as a series of stages where certain activities should take place
Life event model
individual events that happen to you
Generativity vs stagnation
Erikson, the stage during middle adulthood in which people consider their contributions to family and society
Cognitively in middle age is filled with _____
experience and expertise
Acceptable levels of achievement
acquisition of skill or knowledge in a particular area
According to ___________ studies that test people of different ages at the same time, older subjects scored lower than younger subjects on traditional intelligence test.
cross sectional
T/F Because cross sectional studies do not control for cohort effects, these research designs may underestimate intelligence in older subjects
Over the years, one of the types of intelligence that increases with age is ________ intelligence or the accumulation of information skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience
T/F Both sensory memory and short term memory show virtually no weakening during middle adulthood
Middle aged individuals find it hard to pay attention to everything that is going on around them and often rely on _________ or mental shortcuts to reduce the stress of remembering so many things
_______ are formal strategies for organizing material in ways that make it more likely to be remembered
midlife crisis/transition
stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite
Most people find that midlife crisis bring ______ change in their lives
Big five personalities
neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
set point of hapiness
level of happiness that is relatively consistent despite the day to day ups and downs in life
According to _________ models, researchers understand personality development as the product of universal stages tied to age related crisis
normative crisis
According to the _________ model, individuals at different ages can experience the same emotional and personality changes because they have shared common occurrences in their lives
live events
A state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation
Marital satisfaction falls and rises in a _______ configuration, it usually ______ when children are born and _______ when the last child leaves the home
U shaped, decreases, increases
____% of people who are divorced end up remarrying
empty nest syndrome
experience that relates to parents feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression resulting from their childrens departure from home
boomerang children
young adults who return after leaving home for some period, to live in the homes of their middle aged parents
sandwich generation
couples who in middle adulthood must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents
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