EVR1001- Chapter 2 Flashcard Example #83312

The entire area of land that a river drains is called its __________.

A) dead zone
B) watershed
C) wetland
D) lithosphere

B) watershed
Which one of the following describes a positive feedback loop?

A) A positive feedback loop would stabilize the concentration of a substance.
B) Positive feedback loops are more common in natural systems altered by human actions.
C) Positive feedback loops are relatively common in nature compared to negative feedback loops.
D) A positive feedback loop would reverse a change that may cause damage to an ecosystem.

B) Positive feedback loops are more common in natural systems altered by human actions.
If the pond above is chemically treated to raise the pH to 7.0 ________.

Use the figure above to answer the following question.

A) the water of the pond is now slightly alkaline
B) the water of the pond is now slightly acid
C) the concentration of hydrogen ion is now lower than at pH 7.5
D) the pond is now pH neutral and it has more hydrogen ions than at pH 7.5
E) there will be no measurable levels of hydrogen ion in the pond

D) the pond is now pH neutral and it has more hydrogen ions than at pH 7.5
________ are composed of amino acids.

A) Bases
B) Proteins
C) Carbohydrates
D) Lipids
E) Nucleic acids

B) Proteins
An example of a positive feedback loop ________.

A) is melting arctic snow exposing dark surfaces that heat up and cause further melting
B) is a thermostat turning on the furnace as the temperature drops
C) are predators eating most of their prey and then declining in numbers
D) is a pond becoming more acidic as a result of pollution
E) are birds migrating south in response to colder temperatures

A) is melting arctic snow exposing dark surfaces that heat up and cause further melting
Forming the cell walls of stems, leaves, and roots, what compound is the primary structural constituent of plant tissues?

A) Enzymes
B) Chlorophyll
C) Starch
D) Protein
E) Cellulose

E) Cellulose
Electrically charged atoms or combinations of atoms are called ________.

A) ions
B) elements
C) compounds
D) isotopes
E) molecules

A) ions
How do organic compounds differ from inorganic compounds?

A) Inorganic compounds never contain carbon, whereas organic compounds always contain carbon.
B) Inorganic compounds always only consist of two atoms.
C) Organic compounds are always acidic, while inorganic compounds are always basic.
D) Organic compounds consist of carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds and may contain other elements, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Inorganic compounds lack carbon-carbon bonds.
E) A and C are correct.

D) Organic compounds consist of carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds and may contain other elements, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Inorganic compounds lack carbon-carbon bonds.
Carbon has an atomic number of 6. If an uncharged carbon atom has a mass number of 14, which of the following is true?

A) This atom has 8 protons, 6 neutrons, and 8 electrons.
B) This atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons.
C) This atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 8 electrons.
D) This atom has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons.

B) This atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons.
Could 235U (uranium-235) decay into an isotope of 239Np (neptunium-239)?

A) No, because as uranium decays, it will shed subatomic particles, not add them.
B) Yes, because the half-life of 235U is 700 million years.
C) No, because neptunium (Np) does not exist.
D) Yes, because 236Pb is a smaller atom than 239Np.

A) No, because as uranium decays, it will shed subatomic particles, not add them.
Which of the statements below best describes energy?

A) Energy provides the ability to change the position, the composition, or the temperature of matter.
B) Energy is the food we eat.
C) Entropy is another name for energy.
D) Energy can be created and destroyed.

A) Energy provides the ability to change the position, the composition, or the temperature of matter.
Which of the following are the reactants (ingredients) needed for photosynthesis to occur?

A) plant seeds, water, and soil
B) sunlight, plants, and oxygen
C) carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
D) glucose, oxygen, and sunlight

C) carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
Which of the following best describes the role of autotrophs in ecosystems?

A) They produce their own inorganic molecules, which can be broken down for energy.
B) Without heterotrophs, there would be no autotrophs.
C) They consume other organisms for energy.
D) They produce their own organic molecules, which can be broken down for energy.

D) They produce their own organic molecules, which can be broken down for energy.
Which of the following is an example of potential energy?

A) wind rotating a turbine
B) a rock rolling down a hill
C) the energy held in bonds between atoms
D) water passing through a hydroelectric dam

C) the energy held in bonds between atoms
The transitional zone between ecosystems is called a(n) __________.

A) dead zone
B) ecotone
C) biome
D) ecozone

B) ecotone
Ecosystems that rapidly convert solar energy to biomass __________.

A) have little vegetation
B) are said to have high primary productivity
C) are usually found in cold, damp climates where decomposition is slow
D) are said to have high secondary productivity

B) are said to have high primary productivity
How do energy and matter move through an ecosystem?

A) Matter unidirectionally flows through an ecosystem, whereas energy cycles within an ecosystem.
B) Energy unidirectionally flows through an ecosystem, whereas matter generally cycles within an ecosystem.
C) Both energy and matter cycle within an ecosystem.
D) Both energy and matter unidirectionally flow through an ecosystem.

B) Energy unidirectionally flows through an ecosystem, whereas matter generally cycles within an ecosystem.
A(n) __________ is an example of an ecosystem with high primary productivity, while a __________ is an example of an ecosystem with low primary productivity.

A) algal bed; desert
B) open ocean; wetland
C) tundra; coral reef
D) desert; tundra

A) algal bed; desert
During the light reactions of photosynthesis, the solar energy absorbed by chlorophyll is used to ________.

A) split water molecules and release oxygen in the form of O2
B) break down macromolecules such as starch
C) produce small, high-energy molecules that are used in the Calvin cycle to manufacture sugars
D) defend against predators
E) Both A and C

E) Both A and C
A leaf falls from a tree and lands on the ground. Through time, bugs and bacteria consume the leaf. Which of the following statements regarding this scenario is true?

A) Through the process of digestion, the bugs and bacteria have created new matter that did not exist before.
B) The decomposers are able to use all of the energy that the plant’s leaf obtained from sunlight using photosynthesis.
C) The nutrients from the leaf have been removed from that ecosystem.
D) The nutrients from the leaf have been recycled and released back into the soil.

D) The nutrients from the leaf have been recycled and released back into the soil
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is ________.

A) used to predict rainfall and temperature changes in ecosystems
B) helping conservation biologists study habitats and study biodiversity
C) useful in tracking the movements of individual organisms
D) useful in determining the number of heterotrophs in an ecosystem
E) used to measure the economic value of ecosystem services

B) helping conservation biologists study habitats and study biodiversity
The greatest source of both nitrogen and phosphorus entering Chesapeake Bay is ________.

A) natural sources
B) urban fertilizer runoff
C) municipal and industrial wastewater
D) septic systems
E) agriculture

E) agriculture
The trophic level of “producers” includes ________.

A) any organism using oxygen for respiration
B) any organism producing biomass directly from photosynthesis
C) heterotrophs only
D) the sum of both living and dead biomass in an ecosystem
E) heterotrophs and autotrophs

B) any organism producing biomass directly from photosynthesis
Biological nitrogen fixation (nitrogen fixation that is performed by living organisms) is carried out by ________.

A) various species of specialized
B) bacteria
C) mammals
D) pine trees
E) fungi
F) slime molds

A) various species of specialized
Aquifers are ________.

A) porous rock formations located underground that store groundwater
B) areas where the water table is above ground most of the year
C) a source of water largely untapped by agriculture and urban systems
D) large bodies of surface water such as lakes and oceans
E) moist areas of soils that permit infiltration of nitrogen and phosphorus

A) porous rock formations located underground that store groundwater
The greatest human impact on the carbon cycle has been through ________.

A) increased respiration of the exponentially growing human population
B) mining of limestone (calcium carbonate)
C) use of synthetic fertilizers
D) depletion of aquifers
E) combustion of fossil fuels

E) combustion of fossil fuels
All of the following are approaches to reducing eutrophication except ________.

A) upgrading stormwater systems to capture runoff from roads and parking lots
B) reducing fertilizer use on farms and lawns
C) planting and maintaining vegetation buffers around ditches and streams that trap nutrient and sediment runoff
D) using artificial wetlands to filter stormwater and farm runoff
E) applying fertilizers to farmland just before heavy rains are predicted

E) applying fertilizers to farmland just before heavy rains are predicted
Plants release water vapor through their leaves; this process is called ________.

A) magnification
B) evaporation
C) transpiration
D) percolation
E) condensation

C) transpiration
Glass Lake, located in a valley in low forested mountains, for many decades of the 19th and early 20th centuries was a favorite picnic, recreation, and fishing site for people in surrounding towns and farms. However, in the middle of the 20th century, a trend began in which the privately-owned farms in the Lake’s watershed were purchased by large agribusinesses. The decision was made to grow a profitable crop. The demand for quality farmland resulted in the sale of most of the family-owned establishments and a large increase in the area of land under cultivation. Most of the forests were cut to acquire the land needed for crops. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides increased several fold by the end of the century. In addition, the combined population of the lakeside villages quadrupled during the same time. The lake experienced a slow degradation of water quality and biodiversity. Sport fishing declined and the lake became murky while the sediments in the lake increased in depth.

The symptoms of the lake suggest ________.

A) pesticide poisoning
B) that all the problems have been created by deforestation
C) eutrophication
D) overfishing
E) the effects of global climate change

C) eutrophication
A water quality expert checked the level of dissolved oxygen in lake water and found it ________.

A) was within normal limits for an unpolluted lake
B) very low at the surface and normal near the bottom sediments
C) was low-normal on the surface but extremely low near the bottom sediments
D) absent entirely
E) was much higher than normal

C) was low-normal on the surface but extremely low near the bottom sediments
The same expert found that dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen levels were more than ten times what they were seventy years ago. The primary sources of these are very likely from ________.

A) natural atmospheric phosphorus and nitrogen fixation
B) soil particles eroded from the deforested watershed
C) agricultural and urban fertilizer runoff as well as increased urban wastewater discharges
D) the changes in dissolved oxygen levels
E) the increased algal biomass in the lake

C) agricultural and urban fertilizer runoff as well as increased urban wastewater discharges
A biodiversity survey of the lake revealed a striking decline in nearly all animal species and in
rooted plant life, especially where streams discharged into the lake. The immediate cause(s) of the decline most likely were ________.

A) the fact that the past two winters were colder than usual
B) toxicity of nitrogen and phosphorus to wildlife
C) natural declines in aging wildlife populations
D) pesticide poisoning
E) very low oxygen levels and lack of plants to support animal consumers

E) very low oxygen levels and lack of plants to support animal consumers
A task force composed of water quality chemists, environmental landscape experts, townspeople and corn growers meet and share information. They decide that they must focus on ________ in the initial efforts to restore the lake.

A) restoring biodiversity to the deforested areas and closing the wastewater plant
B) closing the wastewater treatment plant and reducing agriculture by 75%
C) reducing fertilizer inputs into the lake by exploring alternative farming techniques, increasing the efficiency of the wastewater plant and using aerators to increase oxygen levels in the areas where streams flow into the lake
D) reducing the population of the town by 50% and agriculture by 50%
E) banning agriculture from the entire region

C) reducing fertilizer inputs into the lake by exploring alternative farming techniques, increasing the efficiency of the wastewater plant and using aerators to increase oxygen levels in the areas where streams flow into the lake
eutrophication process
1) Nutrients enter a waterway in elevated concentrations.
2) Nutrients promote phytoplankton growth, and increase phytoplankton density in waters.
3) More phytoplankton die and settle where they are metabolized by bacteria.
4) Hypoxic conditions arise in the deep water above the sediments.
5) Aquatic life in and near the sediment flees or suffocates.
1.A snowball rolling down a hill accumulates snow and becomes larger, which increases its speed, causing it to increase its size and speed even more.
2. Increasing air temperatures from global warming speed up the melting of glaciers, exposing darker rocks underneath the ice. The dark surfaces absorb more sunlight, causing further increases in temperature and accelerated glacier melting.
3. A dog pants as it lies in the hot summer sun, releasing excess body heat to the environment and lowering its body temperature to its stable state.
4. A bull on the edge of a herd of cattle panics when it hears a loud noise and begins to run. Five nearby cattle sense the panic and also begin to run. This causes another 15 cattle to panic. Eventually, all 100 cattle in the herd panic and stampede.
5. You invest $1,000 in a savings account and reinvest the 5% interest you earn. The interest makes the amount of money in the account larger, so it earns even more interest. After 20 years, the account contains more than $2,600 and is still growing.
6. When blood sugar levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin, stimulating cells to take up sugar from the blood. When blood sugar levels drop, the pancreas releases another hormone to stop sugar uptake by cells.
1. positive
2. positive
3. negative
4. positive
5. positive
6. negative
Think about which factors contribute to the development of dead zones (the cause), the consequences that result from dead zones, and possible solutions.
Causes: nutrient runoff from agricultural fertilizers, manure, and urban sources, which leads to rapid algal growth and subsequent bacterial decomposition

Consequences:
-death of aquatic organisms that cannot escape
-economic losses for fisheries
-shifts in the marine food web

Solutions:
-policies to promote no-till agriculture
-reduction of fertilizer use to decrease nutrient pollution from farms
-construction of wetlands to absorb nutrients

Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin.
Proteins:
-composed of long chains of amino acids
-function as enzymes and hormones in organisms
-play a key role in the human immune system

Nucleic Acids:
-function primarily to transmit hereditary information in organisms
-composed of chains of nucleotides

Carbohydrates:
-function primarily as sources of chemical energy, or for energy storage, such as starch
-can be used to build structure, such as cellulose in plant cell walls
-composed of simple sugars or large molecules of chemically bonded simple sugars

Prior to phytoremediation the concentration of Cd in the soil was:
a) 1,200 mg/kg soil.
b) 1,900 mg/kg soil.
c) 12 mg/kg soil.
d) 19 mg/kg soil.
d) 19 mg/kg soil.
After 1 year of phytoremediation, alpine penny-cress removed ____ mg/kg soil of zinc.
a. 2,800
b. 200
c. 2
d. 3,000
b. 200
If plants continue to remove zinc at the rate shown, it would take _____ years to remove all the zinc.
a. 3 years
b. 15 years
c. 1 year and 1 month
d. 600,000 years
b. 15 years
In comparing the removal of cadmium with the removal of zinc, the alpine penny-cress removed a _____ % and a ____ mass of cadmium than of zinc.
a. lower, higher
b. higher, lower
c. lower, lower
d. higher, higher
b. higher, lower
If the area contaminated with heavy metals contained 10,000 kg of soil, after 5 years of phytoremediation one would expect alpine penny-cress to have removed:
a. 1,000 g zinc.
b. 10,000 mg zinc.
c. 1,000 mg zinc.
d. 10 kg zinc.
10 kg zinc
Cellular Respiration
Inputs:
-glucose (fuel)
-O2 (gas we inhale)
Outputs:
-CO2 (gas we exhale)
-H2O (water)
-ATP (energy packets that cells use to do work)
Energy flow through an ecosystem
light–>glucose–>ATP–>heat
Chesapeake Bay experiment
High-relief reef: Treatment
Low-relief reef: Treatment
Unrestored bay bottom: Control

1. Reef type is the: Independent variable
2. Adult oyster density is a: dependent variable
3. Spat density is a: dependent variable

Which of these sampling protocols would you use to obtain the most representative data of oyster growth on the three reef types?

A) Sample only the low-relief reefs in each reef complex.
B) Locate the areas of highest oyster density on each of the three reef types and sample only from those locations.
C) Use a random sampling approach to select sites on different reef types from several of the reef complexes.
D) Restrict the sampling to one reef complex only to ensure that factors such as temperature and salinity are consistent.

C) Use a random sampling approach to select sites on different reef types from several of the reef complexes.
Experimental results: How reef height affects oyster populations:

1. The reef type used in sheltie’s experiment are shown on the ________. The mean density of oysters per square meter is shown on the ________.

2. Adult oysters are represented by ________ , spat are represented by ________ and the total of these groups is represented by ________.

3. What is the total number of oysters growing on high-relief reefs? ____________.

4. What is the average number of oysters per square meter supported on high-relief reefs? ________?

5. How many times greater is the total density of oysters on high relief reefs compared to the total density on low relief reefs? ________?

6. How many times greater is the total density of oysters on high relief reefs compared to the total density on the unrestored bay bottom? ________?

1. x-axis, y-axis
2. yellow bars, blue bars, red bars
3. not shown in graph
4. 1,000
5. 4
6. 170
Experimental application: How oysters can change the effects of nutrient pollution
a. nutrients drastically increase the phytoplankton population
b. large amounts of dead phytoplankton are decomposed by bacteria
c. the microbial decomposer population increases and consumes more oxygen
d. insufficient oxygen suffocates marine animals, forming a dead zone
e. increased oyster population feeds on increased phytoplankton population
f. the microbial decomposer population remains stable and does not use more oxygen
BioFlix Activity: The Carbon Cycle — Aquatic Carbon Cycle

Drag the labels onto the flowchart to identify the sequence in which carbon moves through these organisms.

1. photosynthesis moves carbon from compounds in ocean to phytoplankton
2. zooplankton obtain carbon by eating phytoplankton
3. fish obtain carbon by eating zooplankton
4. killer wales obtain carbon by eating fish
5. cellular respiration in organisms returns carbon to ocean and atmosphere
BioFlix Activity: The Carbon Cycle — Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

Drag the labels onto the flowchart to identify the sequence in which carbon moves through these organisms

1. carbon dioxide enters a plant and is used to make sugar, which is used to build plant tissue
2. a primary consumer eats the plant, the plants carbon enters the primary consumer
3. carbon enters a higher level consumer when it eats the primary consumer, some carbon exists as feces
4. fungi use the carbon that is found in the wolf’s feces
5. cellular respiration in fungi releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
Concept Review: Biogeochemical Cycles

Drag each description to the appropriate bin.

Water Cycle:
– This cycle’s largest reservoir is ocean water.
– Transpiration is a major flux in this cycle.

Carbon Cycle:
– This cycle is significantly affected by the extraction of fossil fuels.
– Photosynthesis is a major flux in this cycle.

Nitrogen Cycle:
– Nitrification is a major flux in this cycle.
– This cycle’s largest reservoir is the atmosphere.

Phosphorus Cycle:
– This cycle is affected by the release of detergents in treated wastewater.
– The weathering of rock is a major flux in this cycle.

Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

What information is presented on the y-axis of the graph?
A) time, measured in 20-year intervals
B) the amount of nitrogen stored in Earth’s ecosystems
C) the amount of nitrogen humans add to Earth’s ecosystems each year
D) the amount of nitrogen added to Earth’s ecosystems each year

D) the amount of nitrogen added to Earth’s ecosystems each year
Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

What is the natural rate of nitrogen fixation in Earth’s ecosystems?

A) 2020 teragrams of nitrogen per year
B) 2020 kilograms of nitrogen per year
C) 100 kilograms of nitrogen per year
D) 100 teragrams of nitrogen per year

D) 100 teragrams of nitrogen per year
Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

What does the red graph line represent?
A) input of nitrogen from burning fossil fuels
B) input of nitrogen from all human activities
C) input of nitrogen from fertilizer and industrial processes
D) input of nitrogen from legumes grown on farms

B) input of nitrogen from all human activities
Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

In 1960, what was the total amount of nitrogen released by human activities?

A) about 25 kilograms
B) about 50 teragrams
C) about 25 teragrams
D) about 50 kilograms
E) about 270 teragrams

B) about 50 teragrams
Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

During which period did the total amount of nitrogen released by human activities increase most rapidly?

A) 1920-1940
B) 1940-1960
C) 1960-1980
D) 1980-2000
E) 2000-2020

C) 1960-1980
Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

Which factor was the major contributor to the rapid increase in the total human input of nitrogen between 1960 and 2000?

A) a rapid increase in fertilizer use and industrial processes
B) a rapid increase in the use of fossil fuels
C) a rapid increase in the amount of legumes grown on farms
D) a rapid increase in the natural rate of nitrogen fixation

A) a rapid increase in fertilizer use and industrial processes
Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

Is the following statement supported or not supported by the data shown in the graph?

In the year 2000, the total human input of nitrogen into Earth’s ecosystems was almost twice the natural rate of nitrogen fixation.

A) supported
B) not supported
C) cannot be determined from the graph

A) supported
Input of Nitrogen to Earth’s Ecosystem: Can you interpret the graph to answer these questions?

Is the following statement supported or not supported by the data shown in the graph?

By the year 2100, the increasing use of fertilizer will cause the total human input of nitrogen into Earth’s ecosystems to be about three times the natural rate of nitrogen fixation.

A) supported
B) not supported
C) cannot be determined from the graph

cannot be determined from the graph

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *