Hamlet Vocab Flashcard Example #3177

Sentinel – definition
n. One that keeps guard; a sentry
Sentinel – Syn/Ant
Syn: Sentry, guard, lookout, watchman, watch, ward, picket, patrol, scout, ranger, guardian, guardsman
Sentinel – etymology
Ital: sentinella, prob. fr. OItal: sentina (vigilance) fr. Lat: sentire (to feel)
Illuminate – definition
v. To provide or brighten with light
Illuminate – Syn/Ant
Syn: light, illumine, irradiate, brighten; clarify, explain, elucidate, instruct; exemplify

Ant: darken, obliterate, becloud, benight, cloud, obscure

Illuminate – etymology
Lat: luminare (to lighten up) fr. lumen (light)
Usurp – definition
v. intr. To take over or occupy without right
Usurp – Syn/Ant
Syn: seize, steal, grab; take, appropriate, commandeer, preempt, arrogate, encroach upon, infringe upon

Ant: give up, surrender, yield, relinquish, renounce

Usurp – etymology
Lat: usurpate (to take into use)
Emulate – definition
tr. v. To strive to equal or excel, esp. through imitation

*Shakespeare uses “emulate” as an adjective (“a most emulate pride”). This usage of the word is obsolete. Used in this context it means that an action or sentiment is driven by envy or a feeling of rivalry.

Emulate – Syn/Ant
Syn: follow, copy, imitate; rival, mimic, ape
Emulate – etymology
Lat: aemulus (emulous)
Harbinger – definition
n. One that indicates or foreshadows what is to come
Harbinger – Syn/Ant
Syn: herald, precursor, forerunner, indication, announcer, signaler, proclaimer; omen, portent, token, clue, symbol
Harbinger – etymology
OFr: herberge (lodging), of Gmc. orig.
Impotent – definition
adj. Lacking physical strength or vigor; weak
Impotent – Syn/Ant
Syn: ineffective, powerless, frail, feeble, weak, disabled, helpless, paralyzed; feckless, hapless

Ant: potent, powerful, puissant, forceful, vigorous

Impotent – etymology
Lat: in + potens (to be able)
Retrograde – definition
adj. Reverting to an earlier or inferior condition
Retrograde – Syn/Ant
Syn: regressive, backward

Ant: forward

Retrograde – etymology
Lat: retrogradi (to go back) fr. retro- (retro-) + -gradus (walking)
Satyr – definition
n. (From Greek mythology) A woodland creature with a goat’s legs, ears, and horns
Satyr – etymology
Gk: saturos
Frailty – definition
n. The condition of being morally or physically weak
Frailty – Syn/Ant
Syn: weakness, fault, sin, vice, failing, defect, blemish, flaw, fallibility, imperfection, foible, susceptibility

Ant: strength, virtue

Frailty – etymology
Lat: frangere (to break)
Circumscribed – definition
tr. v. To limit narrowly; restrict
Circumscribed – Syn/Ant
Syn: circle, encircle, outline, define, delineate; surround, enclose, encompass; limit, proscribe, restrict, restrain, confine, impede, hem in, check, curb, bridle, corset, fix

Ant: expand, extend, enlarge, open, unfetter

Circumscribed – etymology
Lat: circumscribere (to write around)
Libertine – definition
n. One who acts without moral restraint
Libertine – Syn/Ant
Syn: profligate, debauchee, rake, voluptuary, reprobate, lecher, roue, sensualist, seducer, immoralist; satyr, womanizer, goat

Ant: prude, puritan

Libertine – etymology
Lat: liber (free)
Beguile – definition
tr. v. To deceive by guile

(Guile: n. Sly or cunning intelligence)

Beguile – Syn/Ant
Syn: delude, deceive, dupe, bamboozle, ensnare, lure, trick, cheat, hoodwink, hoax; lull, distract, enchant, charm, bewitch, captivate, please, cheer; entertain, divert, amuse, occupy

Ant: enlighten, disabuse, make weary; alert, alarm, jar

Beguile – etymology
ME
Canonize – definition
tr. v. To declare (a deceased person) to be as honorable as a saint
Canonize – Syn/Ant
Syn: sanctify, glorify, beautify, bless, consecrate, dedicate
Canonize – etymology
Gk: kanon (measuring rod, rule)
Distilment (distillate) – definition
n. A purified form; an essence
Distilment (distill) – Syn/Ant
Syn: evaporate, condense, vaporize
Distilment (distillate) – etymology
Lat: dustillare (to trickle)
Encumber – definition
tr. v. To hinder or impede the action or performance of
Encumber – Syn/Ant
Syn: burden, weigh down, load, load down, obstruct, hinder

Ant: unload, unburden, unencumber

Encumber – etymology
OFr: encumber (to block up)
Ecstasy – definition
n. Intense joy or delight
Ecstasy – Syn/Ant
Syn: rapture, exaltation, bliss, elation, euphoria, fervor, intoxication, rhapsody, transport

Ant: agony, affliction, distress, misery, torment

Ecstasy – etymology
Gk: existanai (to displace, derange)
*possibly fr. Gaulish: comboros
Expostulate – definition
intr. v. To reason earnestly with someone in an effort to dissuade or correct them
Expostulate – Syn/Ant
Syn: protest, object, remonstrate, inveigh against, enjoin, plead with, exhort, forewarn, counsel, caution, reason against
Expostulate – etymology
Lat: expostulare fr. postulare (to demand)
Promontory – definition
n. A high ridge of land jutting out into a body of water
Promontory – Syn/Ant
Syn: headland, hill, high point of land, point, neck of land, spur, ness, cape, peninsula, embankment; projection, overhang, precipice, jutty; cliff, bluff, height
Promontory – etymology
Lat: promonotorium prob. fr. prominere (to jut out)
Firmament – definition
n. The vault or expanse of the heavens; the sky
Firmament – Syn/Ant
Syn: sky, heavens, vault, welkin, the blue, air, ether, canopy, space, outer space, the void, interstellar space, intergalactic space
Firmament – etymology
Lat: firmare (to strengthen)
Quintessence – definition
n. The pure, highly concentrated essence of a thing
Quintessence – Syn/Ant
Syn: essence, elixir, heart, core, pith, soul, gist, marrow, sum total, quiddity, distillation; embodiment, exemplar, personification
Quintessence – etymology
Med. Lat: quinta essentia fr. quinta (fifth) + essentia (essence)
Affectation – definition
n. A show, pretense, or display; a behavior that is assumed rather than natural
Affectation – Syn/Ant
Syn: pretense, pretension, sham, false air, insincerity, artificiality

Ant: naturalness, genuineness, artlessness, simplicity

Affectation – etymology
Lat: affectatio (to strive after)
Hue – definition
n. A particular gradation of color; a shade; an aspect
Hue – Syn/Ant
Syn: color, coloration, shade, tint, tincture, tone; cast, tinge
Hue – etymology
OE: hiw, heo (color, form)
Calumny – definition
n. A false statement maliciously made to injure a reputation; the utterance of malicious falsehoods
Calumny – Syn/Ant
Syn: slander, libel, defamation, backstabbing, vilification, depreciation, backbiting, animadversion, deprecation, revilement, calumniation, malice, innuendo, denigration; slur, smear, insinuate, barb

Ant: praise, acclaim, kudos, encomium, eulogy

Calumny – etymology
Lat: calui (to deceive)
Ostentation – definition
n. Pretentious display meant to impress others; (archaic: an exhibition)
Ostentation – Syn/Ant
Syn: pretension, pretentiousness, semblance, show, showiness, pretense, pretext, display, pageantry, pomp, pompousness, flourish
Ostentation – etymology
Lat: ostentare, freq. of ostendere (to show)
Equivocation – definition
n. The use of ambiguous language to conceal the truth or to avoid committing oneself

(Equivocate: intr. v. To avoid making an explicit statement; to intentionally mislead by making a statement open to multiple interpretations)

Equivocation – Syn/Ant
Syn: hedging, evasion, ambiguity, avoidance, deceit, deception, deceptiveness, duplicity, prevarication, quibbling, spuriousness, stonewalling, waffling
Equivocation – etymology
LLat: aequivocus (equivocal)
Umbrage – definition
n. A vague or indistinct indication
Umbrage – Syn/Ant
Syn: offense, pique, resentment, displeasure, grudge

Ant: pleasure

Umbrage – etymology
Lat: umbra (shadow)

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