Micro Ch. 19 Flashcard Example #39369

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A gradual rise in numbers during an epidemic indicates a common source epidemic.
True
False
False
An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
epidemical.
endemic.
pandemic.
syndemic.
pandemic
The type of epidemiological study that determines the characteristics of the persons involved and the time and place of the outbreak is called a(n)
inspection study.
descriptive study.
cohortive study.
retrospective study.
descriptive study
Large respiratory droplets typically travel no farther from point of release than
3 meters.
5 meters.
1 meter.
20 meters.
1 meter
Approximately what percentage of hospitalized patients may develop a nosocomial infection?
0%
5%
20%
70%
5%
Which of the following is not a vector?
fomite
human
fly
flea
fomite AND human
fomite
The World Health Organization (WHO) is part of the
Food and Drug Administration.
Department of Health and Human Services.
Department of Human Resources.
United Nations.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
United Nations
An infection acquired during hospitalization is referred to as
antibiotic-induced.
therapeutic.
medication-stimulated.
nosocomial.
nosocomial
Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
symptomatic.
clinical.
acute.
latent.
communicable.
communicable
When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
protected population.
active immunity.
passive immunity.
herd immunity.
herd immunity
WHO has targeted for elimination of
polio.
dracunculiasis.
measles.
plague.
polio, dracunculiasis AND measles.
polio, dracunculiasis AND measles
An experimental study in which neither the doctor nor the patient knows who is getting the actual treatment is called
single-sided.
double-sided.
double-blind.
double-barrier.
double-blind
The reservoir of infection for botulism and tetanus is
humans.
soil.
water.
animals.
soil AND water.
soil
Apparently healthy people who may transmit a pathogen they harbor are called
vectors.
fomites.
vehicles.
carriers.
carriers
Important sources of contamination in crowded locations are
blood.
droplets of saliva or mucus.
restrooms.
kitchens.
droplets of saliva or mucus
In a double-blind test the treating physician knows who is getting the actual treatment.
True
False
False
The immunity of some black Africans to malaria is probably due to their
general health.
cultural practices.
age.
genetic background.
genetic background
The number of cases of a specific disease per one hundred people exposed is called the
attack rate.
index rate.
mortality rate.
obesity rate.
attack rate
The doctor responsible for introducing the idea of hand washing before attending patients was
Klein.
Semmelweis.
Koch.
Pasteur.
Semmelweis
Cross-sectional surveys are very useful in establishing cause of a disease.
True
False
False
So far, the only disease that has been globally eradicated is
polio
smallpox
measles
diphtheria
smallpox
A dramatic increase in the incidence of a specific disease in a given population is referred to as a(n)
pandemic.
endemic.
epidemic.
mortality.
epidemic
Because of the natural evolution of microorganisms, it is necessary to use techniques that allow distinguishing them at the level of
species.
genera.
family.
strain.
strain
A placebo is a mock drug.
True
False
True
The member of the hospital staff who surveys the types and numbers of nosocomial infections is called the
head nurse.
staff control.
attending physician.
infection control practitioner.
infection control practitioner
If the number of people who become ill during an epidemic rises gradually, this is called a(n)
propagated epidemic.
promulgated epidemic.
common source epidemic.
index epidemic.
propagated epidemic
Another name for childbed fever is
S. aureus intoxication.
toxic shock syndrome.
Klein’s disease.
puerperal fever.
puerperal fever
Transmission-Based Precautions
is a course health workers must take.
are guidelines from WHO for dealing with emerging diseases.
are instructions on the care of all patients.
are guidelines to use with patients infected with a highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogen.
are guidelines to use with patients infected with a highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogen
Gonorrhea is a disease that may be
zoonotic.
pandemic.
syndemic.
asymptomatic.
asymptomatic
Vertical transmission involves
droplet transmission.
fomites.
pasteurization.
pregnant woman to fetus.
pregnant woman to fetus
The period of time between exposure to an agent and the onset of disease signs and symptoms is called the
prodromal phase.
decline phase.
incubation period.
lag phase.
incubation period
Nosocomial infections are those acquired at a hospital.
True
False
True
Human population growth and expansion contribute to emergence of diseases.
True
False
True
The guidelines designed for prevention of nosocomial disease during care of all patients is called
Universal Disposables.
Disinfection Manifesto.
Asepsis Preference.
Standard Precautions.
standard precautions
Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
vectors.
fomites.
vehicles.
reservoirs.
fomites
Which of the following is recommended by the Standard Precautions guidelines?
glove use
hand washing
a face shield
antibiotic use
glove use, hand washing AND a face shield
glove use, hand washing AND a face shield
Droplet nuclei typically travel no farther from point of release than
3 meters.
5 meters.
1 meter.
They are suspended indefinitely.
they are suspended indefinitely
The amount of infecting agent received by susceptible individuals is called the
exposure.
number.
dose.
level.
dose
Which of the following may be associated with nosocomial disease?
Enterococcus species.
Escherichia coli.
Pseudomonas species.
Staphylococcus aureus.
All of the choices are correct.
all of the choices are correct
If the number of people who become ill during an epidemic rises and falls rapidly, this is called a(n)
propagated epidemic.
promulgated epidemic.
common source epidemic.
index epidemic.
common source epidemic
Diseases that primarily exist in animals, but may be transmitted to humans are called
parasitic.
symbiotic.
zoonotic.
epidemic.
zoonotic
The portal of entry typically has little effect on the course of a disease.
True
False
False
Which of the following is NOT a political/societal reason for a decrease in rates of childhood immunizations?
Distrust of the healthcare body administering the vaccinations.
Distrust of the government funding the vaccination process.
A lack of a proper ‘cold chain’ for stable transport of vaccines into tropical areas.
Distrust of the scientific community advocating for administration of vaccines.
A lack of a proper ‘cold chain’ for stable transport of vaccines into tropical areas
Which of the following is called a zoonotic disease?
measles
typhoid
common cold
plague
plague
The publication of the CDC that reports new cases of reportable infectious diseases is titled
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
State Health News Letter (SHNL).
Federal Report of Infectious Disease (FRID).
National Morbidity Weekly.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)
A cluster of cases in a specific population occurring in a brief period of time is called a(n)
endemic.
pandemic.
outbreak.
attack break.
outbreak
A new serotype of Vibrio cholerae, V. cholerae 0139, has picked up the ability to produce
pili.
flagella.
capsules.
toxin.
capsules
Explain how the incubation period can influence the spread of an infectious agent.
An infectious carrier will only spread the illness when they are showing acute symptoms. As such, the length of incubation period is not important for spreading the illness.
Depending on the microbe and the illness, an asymptomatic carrier in the incubation period might be shedding infectious microbes to his/her surroundings. In such a case, a longer incubation period would lead to a greater spread of the disease as the carrier comes into contact with more individuals while he/she is generally appearing to be healthy.
A very short incubation period will place a patient into the highly infectious active disease state sooner. Since people avoid contact with actively ill individuals, a very short incubation period will always lead to a DECREASE in the spread of an infectious disease.
A very long incubation period will place a patient into the highly infectious active disease state later. Since people generally avoid contact with actively ill individuals, a very long incubation period will always lead to a DECREASE in the spread of an infectious disease.
Depending on the microbe and the illness, an asymptomatic carrier in the incubation period might be shedding infectious microbes to his/her surroundings. In such a case, a longer incubation period would lead to a greater spread of the disease as the carrier comes into contact with more individuals while he/she is generally appearing to be healthy
A fly may serve as a mechanical vector.
True
False
True
Generally, the smaller the infective dose, the lower the chance of disease.
True
False
False
The first identified case in an outbreak is called the
starter case.
traceable case.
primary case.
index case.
index case
Diseases constantly present in a population are called
epidemic.
chronic.
latent.
endemic.
endemic
Diseases with long incubation periods are more likely to spread extensively.
True
False
True
Schistosomiasis has increased in areas where
snails have become a delicacy.
crayfish are eaten.
dams have been built.
swamps have been drained.
dams have been built
The natural habitat of a pathogen is referred to as its
home.
primary inhabitance.
infectious site.
reservoir.
reservoir
Which of the following contributes to nosocomial disease?
susceptible population
hospital environment
other patients
patient’s own normal flora
All of the choices are correct.
all of the choices are correct
The threat of bioterrorism
is due largely to the ease of spread and severity of diseases.
is exaggerated in light of the efficiency of our healthcare system.
may include rarely seen infectious agents.
has prompted WHO to prepare a readiness plan.
is due largely to the ease of spread and severity of diseases AND may include rarely seen infectious agents.
is due largely to the ease of spread and severity of diseases AND may include rarely seen infectious agents
Which of the following is not a mechanical vector?
fomite
human
fly
flea
fomite AND human
fomite
The single most important measure to prevent the spread of disease is
home cooking.
canning.
pasteurization.
hand washing.
hand washing
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