Period 6 Flashcard Example #93417

How did science affect humans’ conception of the natural world in the 20th century?
– thoughts = electricity, evolution from apes, characteristics from genes – were souls and individualism a thing? were people improvable?
-humans and animals weren’t so different, rise of animal rights and ecology
-as prosperity increased, people demanded more resources—greed from growth
-humans realized harming environment in late 20th century
-environmental scientists brought about awareness about how humans were harming the earth
-existentialist theories about no God, every man for himself led to self-indulgence
-unprecedented population growth—interaction with the environment changed, ecological balances changed
What new technologies and discoveries affected communication, transportation, and conceptions of the world?
-communication and transportation = closer world
-new science (thought was electricity, evolution, big bang, theory of relativity) made people question their humanity, individuality and significance.
-Green revolution = pesticides, produced a lot more food. pesticides were bad, gradual transition to gmos
-medical innovations (vaccines, antibiotics, artificial organs) led to higher rates of survival and longer life
-new energy technology(oil, nuclear power) increased production of material goods
How did humans’ relationship to the environment change in the 20th century?
-global population expanded, growth led to greed, humans exploited Earth’s resources
~over-planting, mass produced cheap food, urbanization, deforestation
-Green revolution led to use of pesticides which were poisonous, use of gmos which hurt genetic diversity
-humans started to realize their exploitation and tried to fix mistakes
~conservation movement, humans saved many species and provided new habitats for some
What negative consequences in the 20th century accompanied the benefits of industrialization?
-Global warming, greenhouse gases
-Pollution threatened the world’s of water and clean air.
-Deforestation and desertification
-use of fossil fuels
-Rates of extinction accelerated
What new energy technologies affected the 20th century?
-Electricity, fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) to generate electricity,
-First wireless telegraph over Atlantic Ocean (1901)
-Internal combustion (1890) by end of 20th century there were 600 million cars on the road.
-Hydro-electricity (only able to work in select areas with water flow)
-Nuclear (too powerful and dangerous)
-Hydrogen (most promising)
-Renewable Energy (culled from wind, sun, ocean tides, and possibly from movement and magnetism of the Earth).
How did humans’ relationship to the environment change in the 20th century?
-They took what they wanted and what they had available to them.
-People started to realise that the environment was a delicate thing, and that environmental care should be our top priority.
What caused some of the major demographic changes in the 20th century?
-Climate Change.
-Irrigation and fertilization.
-Deforestation (Africa lost ? of its tropical forests; Latin America lost ?)
-Land being taken for the building of cities and industries.
-Road, Railroads, air travel, shipping, all replaced travel markers like Mountains, deserts, and forests.
How did the invention of reliable birth control affect gender roles?
-Changed how society saw women.
-Even if women were sexually active, they did not have to have children- not tied to the household and children, and had more opportunities to work.
How did new military technology affect wartime casualties?
-The military tactics became too violent.
-The technology used could wipe out thousands and thousands of people, multiplying the casualties.
-Effects of military tactics (nuclear) led to poisoning the environment and any survivors in the affected region.
-“Man must stop war, or war will stop man”
Why did older, land-based empires decline and/or collapse?
-WWI wiped out an entire generation of European leaders. The war provoked revolution and these revolutions wiped out the Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.
The older land-based Ottoman, Russian or the Qing empires collapsed due
to a combination of internal and external factors. (such as economic hardship,
political and social discontent, technological stagnation or military defeat)
What new movements challenged the status quo during the age of imperial rule?
Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states. Salt March, Gandhi, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Who helped lead and define these movements?
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Quebecois separatist movements, Biafra secession, negritude, Kwame Nkrumah
What ideologies were often used to “undo” imperialism?
the redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements (Indian/Pakistani partition, Zionist Jew settlement of Palestine)
How were colonial peoples affected by the change of old colonial boundaries?
-De-colonized lands were usually left with irrational, indefensible, and unsustainable borders that had been hastily outlined. Many new boundaries crammed historically hostile communities into single states; also, international law treated postcolonial borders as inviolable, even where they were oppressive or unworkable. Civil wars commonly accompanied or followed decolonization, and disputes over divisions of territory often remained unresolved into the twenty-first century.
How were relationships between imperial powers and former colonies maintained after the end of those empires?
the migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles maintained cultural and economic ties between colony and metropole even after the dissolution of empires
What circumstances contributed to genocide and mass refugee populations?
-The proliferation of conflicts led to various forms of ethnic violence (such as
Armenia, the Holocaust, Cambodia and Rwanda) and the displacement of
people resulting in refugee populations. (such as Palestinians or Darfurians)
How did the World Wars affect the nature of war and the relationship of the government to
their populations?
-The varied sources of global conflict in the first half of the century included:
imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan, competition for
resources, ethnic conflict, great power rivalries between Great Britain and
Germany, nationalist ideologies and the economic crisis engendered by the
Great Depression.
What ideologies motivated the World War conflicts?
-The First and Second World Wars were the first “total wars.” Governments
used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism and communism, to mobilize
all of their state’s resources, including peoples and resources both in the home
countries and the colonies or former colonies. (such as the Gurkha soldiers in
India or the ANZAC troops in Australia) Governments also used a variety of
strategies to mobilize these populations, including political speeches, art, media
and intensified forms of nationalism
How did the world’s balance of power change during the Cold War?
-The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of the
Second World War and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States
and Soviet Union emerged as superpowers which led to ideological struggles
between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.
What were the Cold War’s military consequences?
-The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw
Pact and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
What caused the Cold War to end?
The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.
How did the anti-war and nonviolence movements respond to the century’s many wars?
-Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century (such as Picasso’s Guernica, the anti-nuclear movement during the Cold War or Thich Quang Duc’s self-immolation) and some
promoted the practice of nonviolence (such as Tolstoy, Gandhi or Martin Luther King) as a way to bring about political change.
What alternatives were offered to the economic, political, and social status quo?
-Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the existing economic, political and social orders (such as the nonaligned movement which presented an alternative political bloc to
the Cold War, the Tiananmen Square protests that promoted democracy in China, the Anti-Apartheid Movement or the global uprisings of 1968)
Why did some movements use terrorism for political purposes?
-More movements used violence against civilians to achieve political aims. (such as the IRA, ETA, and Al-Qaeda)
How was popular culture affected by the global conflicts?
-Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture. (such
as Dada, James Bond, Socialist Realism or video games)
What new governmental institutions emerged as a result of the 20th century conflicts?
-States controlled most resources and exercised most power. They took on more responsibility for education, health, and warfare.
What role did they play in the world during the 20th century?
-The twentieth century witnessed a great deal of warfare and the collapse of the global economy in the 1930s. In response to these challenges, the role of the state in the domestic economy fluctuated new institutions of global governance emerged and continued to develop throughout the century. Scientific breakthroughs, new technologies, increasing levels of integration, changing relationship between humans and the environment and the frequency of political conflict all contributed to global developments
in which people crafted new understandings of society, culture, and historical interpretations. These new understandings often manifested themselves in and were reinforced by new forms of cultural production.
Institutions of global governance both shaped and adapted to these social conditions.
How did new international organizations affect the relationship of states and peoples around the world?
-New international organizations (such as the League of Nations or the United Nations) formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.
What were the economic effects of new international organizations? Humanitarian effects?
-New economic institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank or WTO) sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world.
-Humanitarian organizations (such as UNICEF, the Red Cross, Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders or the WHO) developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.
How did these economic developments affect the distribution of world resources?
-Multi-national corporations (such as Royal-Dutch Shell, Coca- Cola or Sony) began to challenge state authority and autonomy. Movements throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration.
How did communities of faith respond to the rapid changes in the 20th century?
-Believers developed new forms of spirituality (such as New Age Religions, Hare Krishna or Falun Gong) and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues (such as fundamentalist movements and Liberation Theology)
How did the global nature of culture affect sports,music, fashions, and the arts?
-Sport was more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations. (such as World Cup soccer, the Olympics or cricket) Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film. (such as reggae or Bollywood)
What new social and cultural ideologies developed, and what were the consequences and reactions to these ideologies?
New technologies spread reconfigured traditions by challenging old assumptions about race, class, gender, and religion. Human Rights movements gained traction throughout the world. Interactions increased and led to new cultural identities. Oftentimes, exclusionary reactions followed.

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