PSYCH Chapter 7: Early Adulthood Flashcard Example #42114

How does the body develop during early adulthood?
By young adulthood, the body and the senses are at their peak, but growth still proceeds, particularly in the brain.
What risk do young adults face?
Young adults are generally as fit and healthy as they will ever be. Accidents present the greatest risk of death. In the United States, violence is also a significant risk during young adulthood, particularly for non-whites.
___________ is the natural physical decline brought about by aging.
At the age of ______ illness and disease overtake accidents as the leading cause of death.
Compared to all other developed countries, one of the greatest risks of death in young adult men in the United States is murder.
What is the key to good health and proper weight?
Even in young adulthood , health must be maintained by proper diet and exercise. Obesity is increasingly a problem for young adults.
What types of challenges do people with disabilities face?
People with physical disabilities face not only physical barriers but also psychological barriers caused by prejudice.
As age increases, fewer individuals are classified as obese.
Obesity is defined as body weight that is _______ percent or more above the average weight for a person of a given height.
the physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us
Primary Appraisal
the assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral
Secondary Appraisal
the assessment of whether one’s coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the harm, threat, or challenge posed by the potential stressor
the study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors
Somatic Symptom Disorders
medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
the effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress
Defensive Coping
coping that involves unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation
a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness
Problem-focused coping
managing a threatening situation by directly changing it to make it less stressful; ex. a man having difficulties on the job may ask his boss to change his responsibilities, or may look for a different job
Emotional-focused coping
the conscious regulation of emotion; ex. a mother having trouble finding appropriate care for her child while she is at work may tell herself that she should look at the bright side of things
What are the consequences of long-term stress?
Stress, which is healthy in small doses, can be harmful to the body and mind if it is frequent or long lasting. Long-term exposure to stressors may cause deterioration in the heart, blood vessels, and other body tissues. Stress is linked to many ailments.
What are the strategies for preventing or reducing stress?
Strategies for coping with stress include problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and the use of social support. Utilizing the relaxation technique can also be helpful. Another strategy, defensive coping, which relies on avoidance, can prevent a person from dealing with the reality of the situation.
Stressful events are limited to the negative events in our lives.
Researchers in the field of ___________ study the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors, and have found that stress can produce several outcomes.
Avoiding thinking about a stressful situation by drinking, doing drugs, or just denying the true nature of a situation are all examples of ____________ coping.
Postformal Thought
thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms; it was presented by developmental psychologist Giesela Labouvie-Vief
Dualistic Thinking
things are either right or wrong, good or bad, for them or against them; presented by Psychologist William Perry
Dialectical Thinking
issues are not always clear-cut and that answers to questions must be negotiated ; Jan Sinnot
Schaie’s Stages of Development
adult’s thinking follows a set pattern of stages that focuses on the ways in which information is used during adulthood, rather than on changes in the acquisition and understanding of new information as Piaget’s approach
Acquisitive Stage
the first stage of cognitive development, encompassing all of childhood and adolescence; information gathered before we grow up is stored away for future use to prepare for future activities
Achieving Stage
young adults must confront and resolve several major issues, and the decisions they make such as what job to take; intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long-term goals
Responsible Stage
middle aged adult major concerns tend to relate to their personal situations; ex. protecting family members
Executive Stage
middle adulthood people take on a new perspective of the world
Reintegrative Stage
in late adulthood the focus shifts to tasks that have personal meaning
Does cognitive development continue in young adulthood?
cognitive development continues in young adulthood with the emergence of Postformal thought, which goes beyond logic to encompass interpretive and subjective thinking
How does Postformal thinking develop in early adulthood?
Postformal thought acknowledges that predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms, rather than being based on purely logical processes with absolute right or wrong answers. Perry suggests that people move from dualistic thinking to relativistic thought during early adulthood. According to Schaie, people pass through five stages in the way they use information.
The idea that problem solving in adulthood has to consider previous experiences, logical thinking, and the relative benefits and costs to a decision is also known as ____________.
Postformal thought
Postformal thought and dialectical thinking acknowledge that the world sometimes lacks clearly right and wrong solutions to problems.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg suggests that intelligence is made up od three major components: componential, experiential, and contextual.
Componential Aspect
the mental components used to solve problems
Experiential Aspect
the relationship between intelligence, prior experience, and the ability to cope with new situations
Contextual Aspect
takes account of the demands of everyday, real-world environments
Practical Intelligence
intelligence that is learned primarily by observing others and modeling their behavior
Emotional Intelligence
the set of skills that underline the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions
the combination of responses or ideas in novel ways
What are the major contemporary approaches to intelligence?
new views of intelligence encompasses the triarchic theory, practical intelligence, and emotional intelligence; creativity seems to peak during early adulthood, with young adults viewing even long standing problems as novel situations
What causes cognitive growth in young adults?
major life events contribute to cognitive growth by providing opportunities and incentives to rethink one’s self and one’s world
Sternberg’s _________ theory of intelligence suggests that intelligence is made of three major components.
triarchic theory of intelligence
According to psychologist Sarnoff Mednick, creativity is at its highest in young adulthood because as we get older and more familiar with our areas of study, creativity can be stunted.
Major life events can influence our cognitive development because positive and negative life circumstances lead us to think differently about our relationships with others, what’s important to us, or our place in the world.
First-year adjustment reaction
a cluster of psychological symptoms, including loneliness, anxiety, and depression, relating to the college experience
Benevolent Sexism
women are placed in stereotyped and restrictive roles that appear on the surface to be positive
Hostile Sexism
people treat women in a way that is overly harmful
Academic Disidentification
a lack of personal identification with an academic domain
Stereotype Threat
obstacles to performance that come from awareness of the stereotypes held by society about academic abilities
Who attends college today, and how is the college population changing?
Rates of college enrollment differ across gender, racial, and ethnic lines; the average age of college students is steadily increasing as more adults return to college
What difficulties do students face in college?
academic Disidentification and stereotype threats help explain the low performance from women and African Americans academically; first-year adjustment comes into play for freshmen, they may lack an understanding of college demands and may fell less prepared for the work
Although attending college is an important event in one’s life, the number of individuals who begin college___________.
has been decreasing
More women than men attend and graduate from college, and the proportion of women, relative to men, is increasing.
Jared is having difficulty in his first year of college. Psychological symptoms include loneliness, anxiety, withdrawal, and depression. It appears that Jared is suffering from a cluster of symptoms called _____________.
first-year adjustment reaction
Failing to identify oneself as successful in a certain academic domain such as math and science for women and academics in general for African Americans is known as____________.
Academic Disidentification
Intimacy-versus-isolation stage
according to Erikson, this is the period of post adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close intimate relationships with others
Stimulus-value-role theory
according to psychologist Murstein Bernard relationships proceed in a fixed pattern of three stages: stimulus, value, and role
Stimulus Stage
relationships are built upon a surface level, physical characteristics such as the way a person looks
Value Stage
the relationship is characterized by increasing similarity in beliefs and values
Role Stage
the relationship is built on specific roles played by the participants; ex. husband-wife, boyfriend-girlfriend
Passionate Love
a state of powerful absorption in someone
Companionate Love
the strong affection that we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved
Labeling Theory of Passionate Love
the theory that individuals experience romantic love when two events occur together: intense physiological arousal and situational cues suggesting that the arousal is due to love
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory: The Three Faces of Love
Intimacy – encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness
Passion – the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance
Commitment – the initial cognition that one loves another person and the long-term determination to maintain that love
casual relationships; the three faces of love are absent; ex. someone taking your ticket at the movies
only intimacy is present; ex. good friends that go out to lunch every week
Infatuated Love
only passion is present; ex. a fling based only on sexual attraction
Empty Love
only commitment is present; ex. an arranged marriage or couple that stays together for the children
Romantic Love
passion and intimacy are present; ex. a couple that’s happily dating but are not planning a wedding yet
Companionate Love
intimacy and commitment are there; ex. a couple that enjoys each other’s company but do not have sexual feelings toward one another
Fatuous Love
passion and commitment are present; ex. a couple that moves in together only knowing each other for two weeks
Consummate Love
all three components of love are present; ex. a loving, sexually vibrant, long-term relationship
the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics
How do young adults form loving relationships?
according to Erikson, young adults are in the intimacy-versus-isolation stage that focuses on developing close, intimate relationships
How do people choose spouses?
many factors go into choosing a spouse including love and mutual attraction, which in some cultures are rated behind good health and maturity; types of love include passionate and companionate, Sternberg’s triangular identifies the three components
Are there differences between gay and lesbian relationships and heterosexual relationships?
in general, the values applied to relationships by heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples are more similar than different
According to Erikson, adults spend their early adult years______________________.
focusing on developing relationships with others
__________________ love is the strong affection we have for those individuals with whom our lives are deeply involved.
According to Sternberg, to determine the type of love that best describes a relationship, one must look at the presence or absence of intimacy, passion, and commitment.
What makes a successful marriage?
Success in marriage includes partners who visibly show affection and communicate relatively little negatively, perceive themselves as interdependent couple instead of two independent individuals, share similar interests, and agree on role distribution
Why do couples decide to have children?
the most common reasons for having children are psychological; parents derive pleasure from helping their children grow, fulfillment from their accomplishments, and enjoyment from forging a close bond with them
During the past three decades there has been a decline in both the number of individuals living together without being married.
Divorce is more likely to occur when couples marry without first cohabiting.
When asked why they want to have children, most young adults cite ___________ reasons.
Career Consolidation
according to George Vaillant this is a stage that is entered between the ages of 20 and 40 years, when young adults become centered on their careers
Fantasy Period
a period lasting until 11 years of age where people make and discard career choices without regard to skills, abilities, or job opportunities
Tentative Period
spans adolescence where people begin to think more practically about the requirements of various jobs and their own abilities and interests and how they might fit
Realistic Period
in early adulthood we start to explore career options either through actual experience on the job or through training for a profession
Realistic Personality
down to earth, practical problem solvers, physically strong but with mediocre social skills
Intellectual Personality
oriented toward theoretical an abstract, not good with people but suited to careers in math and science
Social Personality
strong verbal skills and are good with people
Conventional Personality
prefer highly structured tasks
Enterprising Personality
risk-takers and take-charge types that make good leaders
Artistic Personality
use art to express themselves and often prefer the world of art to interactions with people
Communal Professions
occupations associated with relationships, such as nursing
Agentic Professions
getting things accomplished, such as carpentry
Extrinsic Motivation
drives people to obtain tangible rewards, such as money
Intrinsic Motivation
people work for their own enjoyment for personal rewards
What factors influence the choice of a career?
according to Vaillant , young adults reach the stage of career consolidation where they focus on their careers; Gizenberg offers a three-stage period of career development; Holland describes how personality affects career decisions
How have women who pursue careers advanced in the workplace?
gender stereotypes are changing, but women still experience subtle prejudice in career choices, roles, and wages
Why do people work, and what elements of job bring satisfaction?
People work because of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors; the nature of a job, the degree of status it confers, and the variety it offers all contribute to job satisfaction; its important that workers feel their ideas and opinions are valued
According to Vaillant, during young adulthood, individuals become centered on their careers. This stage is known as ____________________.
career consolidation
Which of the following is NOT one of the six personality types Holland indicates is important when it comes to career choice?
Even though there are more job opportunities for women in many fields than there use to be, women are often not afforded the same opportunities as men for advancement within those fields. Specifically, many women are not promoted because they have hit what is known as the _______________________, or an invisible barrier to advancement.
glass ceiling

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