Scarlet Letter (power point, some sparknotes, and highlighted stuff in the book) Flashcard Example #1939

author of the Scarlet letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne
when was SL written
about 1850
NH’s birth and death
1804-1864
what was NH in the 19th century
a… Heartthrob 🙂 😉 ;333333
story of William Hathorne
ordered the whipping of five citizens in the streets of salem. he was a bitter persecuter of quakers according to NH
who was NH’s great great grandfather
william Hathorne
story of John Hathorne
was the magistrate who presided over the trial of the accused witches of salem in 1692
who was NH’s great grandfather
John Hathorne
when and where was NH born
july 4 1804 in salem massachusettes
what happened to NH’s father
he died when NH was 4
why was NH sent to private school
his relatives discovered his storytelling abilities
where was NH sent to college
Bowdoin College in Maine
who were NH’s now famous classmates
Franklin Pierce and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Franklin Pierce
future president of the usa that went to college with NH
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
poet, educator, and linguist that went to college with NH
when did NH graduate from college
1825
how did NH publish his short stories and his first novel
anonymously
NH’s first novel
Fanshawe
what did NH later do to his early works
he withdrew most of them discounting it as the work of an inexperienced youth and he burned most of his works from these years
when NH cam back into society, where did he work
he was a magazine editor appointed to the boston custom house in 1839
who was sophia peabody
NH’s wife
when did NH get married and to whom
sophia peabody and 1842
what did NH do after he got married
they moved to old manse in concord
what did NH and SP join
they joined the transcendentalist writing circle
who were some of the transcendentalists
Thoreau, Emerson, and louisa may alcott
what did the transcendentalists believe
they human existence transcended (went beyond) the sensory realm and rejected formalism in favor of individual intuitions and imagination
what government office did NH serve in 1846 and 1849
surveyor of the salem custom house
why was NH ousted from the surveyor job
it happened when the incoming political party the whigs, who decided to fire him so they could appoint their own political appointees
what did NH do for pierce
he wrote a biography for presidential candidate pierce for his campaign
what did pierce do for NH in return for the autobiography`
he appointed NH to serve as the us consul to liverpool england
what were some influences on NH
-early childhood in salem
-work in the salem custom house
-his puritan family background
-belief in the existence of the devil
-belief in determinism a theory of predestination
NH’s final days
-returned to the US from europe in 1860
-became ill and underwent a loss of literary creativity
-journeyed to the white mountains hoping to restore his health
-died in plymouth New Hampshire on my 19th 1864
determinism
a theory of predestination
death of NH
died in plymouth New Hampshire on may 19 1864
where was NH buried
sleepy hollow cemetary in concord
the setting of hawthornes novel is critical to the ________ of the novel
plot
boston in the 1640s (what was it)
a puritan village
like other puritan settlements in new england, the local and colonial government were _______
theocracies
theocracy is a word deriving from…
greek
theo
god
cratos
rule
what is a theocracy
a government where the civil laws are based (in whole or in part) on religious laws
what are civil leaders in theocracies
are also probably important religious leaders
beginning of puritanism
england in the mid-1500s
puritans are a sect of what
calvinism
Calvinism (history of)
named after swiss theologian john calvin who broke away from Catholicism after martin luther
calvinism
-no religious authority but scripture
-predetermination
pilgrim puritans
-settlers of plymouth MA were the first permanent colony in new england 1620
-members of the english separatist church, which was a radical faction of puritanism
puritan role in the development of “american” character
-because scripture was central to religion and government, scholarship, was a highly valued right (reserved of course, to men only)
-the role of religious leaders was to present scripture and guide other church members in its understanding and application
-puritan religious leaders were NEVER seen as intermediaries or intercessors
list of the five big ideas
-absolute sovereignty
-human depravity
-predestination
-covenant theology
-individualism and reading
absolute sovereignty (5 big ideas)
-god is totally in control at all times; nothing happens outside his knowledge or power
-besides sovereignty the puritans all used the word providence when discussing the concept
-the considered religious art roman catholic and idolatrous
human depravity (five big ideas)
-depravity=wickedness
-because of adam and eve’s sin all humanity is inherently evil and incapable of response to god
-all are tainted by original sin. there is nothing good in a human apart from the saving action of god
-because this depravity god must initiate all interactions with humans and must give humans the ability to respond
predestination (five big ideas)
-god in his absolute sovereignty and wisdom determined before human history who would be saved (the elect) and who would be damned
-the elect have no choice but to be saved; the damned cannot choose election, even if they think they want to follow god
-however in day to day matters, humans are responsible for their choices–but god knows all choices and outcomes and is able to make all choices work to achieve his purposes (his sovereignty)
the elect
those who would be saved
covenant theology (five big ideas)… (also sry this a rlly long answer!!! that youtube vid was extremely thorough)
-covenant=an agreement or contract between god and his followers
-at the heart of calvinism is covenant theology
-the concept of covenant influenced all aspects of life—1. relationship with god—2. social and civil relationships (for example the mayflower compact)—3. church organization
-compact=another word used to the puritan word covenant
-puritans were congregationalists rejecting the hierarchy of the church of england and maintaining their each church or congregation must be self-governing and autonomous
-members entered into a covenant with each other and chose a pastor and elected elders and deacons to carry out the work of the church
-members demonstrated their election (being chosen by god) through a telling of their conversion experience (conversion narrative like anne bradstreets letter to her children); only the elect could partake of communion
individualism and reading (five big ideas)
-because of the reformation emphasis on bible and individuals, puritans placed great emphasis on individual relationship with god—1. both man and women studied and interpreted the bible for themselves—2.literacy was important for all
-because of the belief in gods election purtians also believed in individual reflection on and interpretation of personal experience resulting in—1. conversion narratives—2.journals and diaries—3. histories
-all kept with the goals of documenting the work of god and individual response to it
-puritans were continually reading-literaly reading scripture figuratively reading events and themselves all with the goal of interpreting what god had to say
the puritan emphasis was on…
-self-reliance
-independence
-individual achievement
-individual responsibility
-personal accountability
-power through ability (education)
what becomes the basis of “american rugged individualism”
all of the ideas of the puritan emphasis that were discouraged in the old world
why do most americans disagree so strongly with theocracies now
because of the strict rules of the puritans
what was a result of puritan boston still being a theocratic society
crime against church (or god) was the equivalent of a crime against another person or against the state
what was illegal in puritan boston (just what we talked about)
-to miss church on sabbath days
-to sleep during sermons that could run 3 or more hours long
how long were puritan sabbath sermons
3 or more hours long
what could land you in the pillory or stocks
virtually any offense
where did the pillory or stock punishment come from
the puritans imported this punishment to new england from england
what was the purpose of the stocks
a public display of humiliation
explain the stocks
-were built on a scaffold in the center of the village, where the townspeople could mock the offender and throw rotten vegetables or stones
-aside from the offenders hands being immobilized, his ears would be frequently nailed to the board behind his head
what would happen to a criminal after serving time in a jail and then on the pillory
would often be required to wear some outward sign of his or her offense
story of william prynne
-in 1637 as a punishment for writing an essay that criticized the archbishop
-after being put in the stock he had the letters SL branded into his cheeks
what did SL stand for
seditious slanderer
when were the salem witch trials
may through october in 1692 salem MA
what were the salem witch trials
-a series of investigations and persecutions that caused 19 “witches” to be hanged and many others imprisoned
-period of public hysteria generated by false accusations and coerced confessions
what does the scarlet letter title refer to
the novels title refers to a scarlet letter “A” that the novels main character is made to wear on her clothing as a punishment for her crime of adultery
the scarlet letter is considered the first _____ novel written in the united states
symbolic
how is the prison described in the novel
-described by hawthorne as the black flower of civilized society
-he also describes ugly vegetation growing around the prison
what does NH think about prisons
thinks it is a place of death or rotten===used to be beautiful but now is dead
how did NH view the punishments for crime
-as the end of civilization
-meant to guard civilized life, but in reality ended it
what does NH say about the vegetation growing at the prison
says how the prison is out of control and needs to be tamed
what at the prison wasnt described as being ugly or out of control
the rose bush
what does just a rose symbolize
innocence and beauty
what does the rose bush symbolize
morality that may brighten the darkness of human frailty like the rose brightens the prison
what does beadle symbolize
stands for puritism in general (officious sanctimonious= a black shadow)
what does the scaffold symbolize
-stands for punishment and open acknowledgement of personal sin (talks about characters wanting to confess)
night and day symbolism
good and bad=concealment and exposure
sun symbolism
a guilt free innocent happiness (shines on pearl not hester)
symbolism of the forest
-place where darkness and evil congregate
-where witches gather
-where you can sign you soul away to the devil
where does hester give into temptation
the forest
where is the place where pearl can run free and hester can be relaxed
the forest
the forest is a place of ______ law rather than _______ law
-natural law
-human law
what sets the stage for the ensuing “tale of human frailty and sorrow”
the grim seen outside of the prison
the narrator is the voice of _______
reason and morality
how does the narrator speak about the puritan women
speaks of them in a condescending tone, which undermines their moral authority (even their physical description is brutish and they prove to be rampant gossips)
what is an example of sumptuary law in the scarlet letter
how beautifully rendered the A on hester is
example of kalokagathia in the scarlet letter
how beautiful hester is among all of the rough townspeople at the first scaffold scene
what is the kalokagathia intended to do
help the audience sympathize with hester
what does hester seem to embody outside of the prison
blameless essence of nature itself
what is ironic about hester resembling the virgin mary in the prison scence (at the beginning of the book)
she is a scorned sinner that commitd adultery
what is constantly repeated in the grim scene outside of the prison
ignominy and infamy
what is ignominy and infamy
shame and wickedness
what does chillingworth say in the prison/scaffold scene that foreshadows an intimate connection with hesters lover
hes says “he will be known” x3
in “the interview” it becomes clear that chillingworth is possessed by the desire to ______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _________ _______
discover his wifes partner in sin
why is it harder for hester to be free in chapter 5
she is by herself now, rather than the three hour punishment where she could be distracted by trying to look dignified
did hester decide to leave or stay in town (chapter 5)
she has chosen to stay
what literary device is present in the title “hester at her needle”
double entendre—literal—he daily public ridicule and pain, she is very strict with her punishments
what were the three reasons hester stayed in boston (sorry dont have page number because my book is different)
-“her sin, her ignominy, were the roots which she had struck into the soil. It was as if a new birth, with stronger assimilations than the first, had converted the forest-land, still so uncongenial to every other pilgrim and wanderer, into Herter Prynne’s wild and dreary, but life long home. All other scenes of earth–even that village of rural England, where happy infancy and stainless maidenhood seemed yet to be in her mother’s keeping, like garments put off long ago–were foreign to her, in comparison”
-“It might be,–doubtless it was so, although she hid the secret from herself, and grew pale whenever it struggled out of her heart, like a serpent from its hole,–it might be that had been so fatal. There dwelt, there trode the feet of one with whom she deemed herself connected in a union that,unrecognized on earth, would bring them together before the barof final judgement, and make that thier marriage-altar, for a joint futurity of endless retribution.”
-“What she compelled herself to believe–what, finally, she reasoned upon, as her motive for continuing a resident of New England–was half a truth, and half a self-delusion. Here, she said to herself, had been the scene of her guilt, and here should be the scene of her earthly punishment”
list the punishements and daily tortures of hester (chapter 5)
what can hester detect about other people
if they are sinners
what is penance
what you do to make up for you sin
what is penitence
the sorrow or regret you feel for a sin
what does the narrator believe about hester involving penitence (chapter 5)
that she doesnt have penitence
what is pearls name an allusion to
the bible– The Pearl of Great Price
what does pearl look like (chapter 6)
-black eyes
-beautiful
-dark skin (most kids tended to be pale)
-has a mature depth of beauty
pearls personality (chapter 6)
-rebellious
-wild
-intelligent
-volatile personality
-often called an elf-child
-emph
-elf spirit
why is hester terrified of pearl (chapter 6)
she doesnt understand her
what does pearl become a symbol of (chapter 6)
her mothers sin
pearl evolves to become the symbol of what (chapter 6)
the passion of her mothers sin
what about pearl punishes her mother daily (chapter 6)
waywardness
who does pearl defend her mother to (chapter 6)
the children
in chapter 6 what is pearls foremost image of her mother
the scarlet letter
why does pearls foremost image of her mother, the scarlet letter, make hester sad (chapter 6)
because pearl doesnt know what it means
what does pearl know about her life (chapter 6)
she is intuitive and knows that her life isnt normal
how does hester dress pearl in chapter 7
crimson velvet tunic
what about the leaders life’s made them a hypocrite (chapter 7)
their extravagant houses
how does pearl “twist the knife” when she points out hesters reflection in the armor
hesters “A” was the biggest part in the reflection
what is different about chapter 8 compared to the first seven chapters
it is more dramatic
when is the first time that all of the characters are together since the scaffolding
chapter 8
why is hester at the governors house (chapter 8)
they are debating on whether or not to take pearl away
why did they think about taking pearl away from hester (chapter 8)
-pearl could be evil (do this for hesters sake)
-or hester could be unfit to teach a child in the proper christian way (do this for pearls sake {if she wasnt a demon child})
what would have happened to hester if they had take pearl away (chapter 8)
she would have become evil
what is providence
divine intervention
what does pearl know about dimmesdale in chapter 8
that he is her father
does pearl like wilson in chapter 8
no
what literary device is used in the title of chapter 9 “the leech”
double entendre
what are the meanings of chapter nines tiltle “the leech”
-he is a physician that is like a leech creature
-he leeches on them and sucks the life out slowly of dimmesdale
who does chillingworth decide to blame for the sin
dimmesdale (he doesnt blame hester)
what does the narrator say about your relationship with a doctor
-your doctor should not know everything about you
-if you allow someone to be so close to you, you might talk to them and tell them too much
funfact foreshadowing is used on page 114 in my book
yours should be three-ish pages before that
what do the townspeople think about the evil influence on dimmesdale (chapter 9)
they think he can come over his devil influence and they think he is just being tested
what is an overwhelming personality trait of dimmesdale (chaper 10)
his goodness
in chapter ten dimmesdale is overwhelmingly good. what is this an example of
romance (the fact that is a romance novel)
In chapter 10 RC has captured D and H, but who will he never be able to catch (metaphorically)
pearl
is pearl a sinner
no. she is not a sinner but she is a product of sin
can pearl be condemned for her parents sin
no
in what chapter does chillingworth become evil
11
how does chillingworth abuse dimmesdale in chapter 11
psychologically
how does the congregation feel about dimmesdale (chapter 11)
sympathetic to him
how does dimmesdale begin to act in chapter 11
catholic–it is so extreme that he is doing this to himself
what will purify dimmesdale (chapter 11)
-confess publicly
hesters penance and penitence
-she has penance but no penitence
dimmesdale penance and penitence
-penitence but no penance
does the narrator force you to think only one thing about a chracter
no
how does dimmesdale feel when he holds hands with pearl and hester (ch 12)
revitalized-they are full of life compared to him
which scene is an apocalyptic scene
-the scene on the scaffold when the three hold hands and there is a meteorite
-chillingworth is also there (the devil)
what is the moral of the scarlet letter
to be bold and be true
what are the two views of hester (chapter 13)
-both are through the town—1. how they used to look down on her—-2. they now revere her
why does the town now revere hester (chapter 13)
-she helps with the poor
-helps sick without hesitation
-she keeps her head down
-doesnt hurt anyone or step on their toes
-easy for them to love her because she has made no complaints and she is asking nothing of them and she is only giving
what embodies the fact that “A” means “able”—it is also hypocritical (chapter 13)
the fact that she never complains and asks nothing of the town
what does hester want to do to herself (and pearl) but she doesnt because of pearl (chapter 13)
-commit suicide
– to see what awaits her afterlife
-has pearl saved her?
why did the scarlet letter not work? (chapter 13)
she is supposed to feel penitent but she doesnt
what does hester ask chillingworth involving his secret (identity)
she wants permission to tell D who C is
what does this phrase suggest “black flower blossom as it way” (ch 14)
-suggests a natural development that is inevitable
-determinism
-fatalism
what are H’s feelings toward RC (ch 15)
-bitter
-she cant think why she was ever married to him
why doesnt RC blame H for the sin
he says they were equal because they shouldnt have gotten married in the first place
what are RC’s intentions
BAD
what does pearl become even more obsessed with in ch 15 and what does she do
-the A
-she makes her own in eal (idk how to spell this SRRY) grass
-has a tinge of innocence and new life
-she asks about eh letter constantly now
what does sunshine symbolize
-freedom from guilt
-guilt free happiness
-blessing from god
-pearls innocence
who tells pearl about the “A” and what did he/she say? (chapter 16)
-the woman on the corner
-she says that it is the devils mark
when does pearl finally know why the minister places his hand on his heart
-chapter 16
-after the woman on the corner tells her the “A” stands for sin
what can pearl do with her innocence, and what does it do for the book/furthering the story
-she can make very true comments about dimmesdale
-these statements are needed to show the true character of dimmesdale
does dimmesdale think he has done all of his pennance (chapter 17)
yes
what is a foil
character that highlights another character’s traits by doing the exact opposite
does hester still love Dimmesdale (chapter 17)
yes, passionately (she thinks public humiliation would have been better than what actually happened)
what does this excerpt (sort of en excerpt not really… couldnt think of the right word) showing,– Hester thinks their act was holy, but Dimmesdale hushes her
it shows H’s lack of penitence
what can happen in the forest (involving hester and dimmesdale)
they can be true and honest
what can happen once hester takes off her A. and takes off her bonnet
she can be herself
what does pearls communion with the forest show (chapter 18)
-that she is very closely aligned with it
-she is the one with the wilderness
when pearl is aligned with the forest, what are some of the allusions used
-nymphs
-dryads
why is it impossible for hester and dimmesdale to pretend the sin never happened
pearl
what does dimmesdale do that shows he is selfish (chapter 19)
-he would do anything to make pearl shut up (stop throwing a temper tantrum)
-make hester put the “A” back on
what does pearl do when dimmesdale kisses her in the forest for the first time (chapter 19)
-she wipes it off because it was incencere
when does the narrator start to call dimmesdale character into question
-chapter 20
-he is two faced
why is dimmesdale two faced
he hasnt told the truth because he doesnt want to ruin his image and reputation–not god
what does mistress hibbins recognize in dimmesdale (chapter 20)
a darkness
where does dimmesdale pain stem from
from the fact that he is not true rather than the actual sin itself—he wont feel better until he comes clean
when will dimmesdale begin to feel better
when he comes clean
why is hester good at looking dead (chapter 21)
because she is leaving and doesnt care about the stigma–like marble
what is pearl compared to (chapter 21)
bird
what does the comparison of pearl to a bird symbolize
the fluctuation of spirit in her mother=nervous excitement
what does pearl say about the brook (talking about the kiss form dimmesdale)
said it would hardly wipe off the kiss
what happens to pearl when dimmesdale finally tells the truth
she is no longer a demon child
when does the narrator finally interject his own opinion
chapter 21
when does the narrator possibly talk about his family
in my book its page 211 but i yalls it will be 3ish pages before
what do mariners embody and defy
-embody individuality
-defy puritan oppression
THIS IS TRUE HUMAN EXPRESSION
why were the mariners allow to defy puritan oppression
they were just passing through
what would the mariners have been considered in the 1800s
pirates
why wasnt it suspicious for chillingworth to talk to the mariners
-learn that chillingworth was securing passage on the ship (this creates suspense)
what was a crushing blow to hester’s dream of excape
that chillingworth was securing passage on the ship
how does hawthorne feel about soldiers
he admires them and seems to be nostalgic, mostly about how the cared about what they were fighting for rather than for money=mercinary
what does hawthorne taking time to talk about his feeling toward the army and other group do to the story
-lets us wonder what will happen with them
-builds suspense
how does dimmesdale look when he is giving his final speech
he looks great at the beginning, but maybe the rapid procession of thoughts making him look bad=like hes about to die
how does hester feel when dimmesdale is giving he final speech
distant
what do pearls frenzic motions during D final speech represent
hesters state
what is the ignominy at the final speech
a reversal of the electricityfrom the second scaffold scene that brought life to them with the meteor in the sky–the circle of life
-the three complete eachother when they held hands,,, but they need to do this during the day for it to really mean anything
what does the crowd mistake for posterity at the final speech
guilt
what does the crowd think about dimmesdale’s final speech
that it was the most holy words he has ever spoken
when does dimmesdale look like he is about to die
during his final speech
why does the crowd think he gave a great speech (chapter 23)
because he is about to die
what does dimmesdale do involving church and state
-he rejects them both
-he has to do it on his own
-pursuing his true self at last
what is chillingworth or a minister of
the devil
why does the narrator choose to not tell the reader about what was on dimmesdales chest
-reminds the reader o fthe mystery
-or it could have been passed from generation to generation
-it seems made up when you withhold the detail–more credit
when does pearl stop being antagonistic
when she kisses dimmesdale
when and why can pearl finally be normal
-when he kisses pearl
-she can now be a normal human being because he admitted to being her father
even though they were themselves in the forest they couldnt be together in public or in the afterlife why???
because it was still a sin
why was dimmesdale glad to tell his sectet
he was glad god aloud him to get it off his chest
what do the last words in chapter 23 mean
he has done what he was meant to do THIS IS THE RESOLUTION
why is chapter 24 the denouement
it becomes after the resolution
what does the moral of the story mean
be honest and let people infer what is true about you
what happened to Chillingworth at the end of the book
-you learn that he died within a year
-gives fortune to pearl
it is inferred that pearl does what for hester (at the end of the book)
-buys her expensive gifts
-possibly supports her in her old age
how do you know that pearl is married and living happily somewhere else
-hester sews baby garments
-she moved somewhere else but not england
where was hester buried
near dimmesdale—-reunited in the afterlife?????????????
who is governor bellingham
a wealthy elderly gentlemen who spends much of his time consulting with the other town fathers. despite his role as governor of a fledging society, he very much resembles a traditional English aritocrat. Dellingham tends to strictly adhere to the rules, but he is easily swayed by Dimmesdale’s eloquence. He remains blind to the misbehaviors taking place inhis own house: his sister mistress hibbins, is a witch
mistress hibbins
is a widow who lives with her brother, Governor Bellingham, in a luxurious mansion. She is commonly known to be a witch who ventures into the forest at nbight to ride with the “Black Man”. her appearances at public occasions remind the reader of the hypocrisy and hidden evil in Puritan society
reverend Mr. john wilson
bostons elder clergyman reverend wilson is scholarly yet grandfatherly. he is a stereotypical puritan father, a literary version of the stiff, starkly painted portraits of American Patriarchs. Like governor bellingham, wilson follows the communitys rules strictly but can be swayed by dimmesdales eloquence. unlike dimmesdale, his junior colleague, wilson preaches helfire and damnation and advocates harsh punishment of sinners
why does the narrator decide to write the scarlet letter
he is interested in american history
what makes chillingworth stay in boston
his lust for revenge
which character can be described as the antagonist
chillingworth
who do the townspeople speculate is pearls real fahter
the devil

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