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According to control theory, when are inner controls most effective in deterring deviant behavior?
A) When we fear punishment from authorities such as parents or the court system. B) In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society. C) When they are applied to members of the middle or upper classes. D) In situations where there is a strong police presence.
B) In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.
Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
A) functional B) conflict C) symbolic interactionist D) neo-conflict
C) symbolic interactionist
A group’s usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.
A) social control B) sanction C) social order D) social guideline
C) social order
The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.
A) Harold Garfinkel B) Erving Goffman C) Talcott Parsons D) Herbert Spencer
A) Harold Garfinkel
All of the following theories follow the principles of symbolic interactionism EXCEPT for which one?
A) differential association theory B) control theory C) labeling theory D) strain theory
D) strain theory
Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?
A) rationalization theory B) judgment theory C) self-control theory D) control theory
D) control theory
In an effort to resist the label of “deviant,” most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.
A) ideologies B) techniques of neutralization C) strategies of justification D) labeling
B) techniques of neutralization
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
A) master status B) role C) stigma D) sanction
How a society treats its deviants is one measure of how humane it is. What would an examination of prisons and mental hospitals in the United States suggest regarding this standard?
A) The United States is the most humane society in the world. B) Prisons are a last resort in dealing with deviants. C) U.S. prisons emphasize prisoner rehabilitation and mental hospitals cure the mentally ill. D) They are both used as warehouse for the unwanted.
D) They are both used as warehouse for the unwanted.
When citizens take the law into their own hands it is known as __________.
A) vigilantism B) recidivism C) common law D) criminal justice
The two disciplines that would be most concerned with addressing qualities within the individual to explain deviant behavior are ________ and ________.
A) anthropology; sociology B) sociology, psychology C) sociobiology; psychology D) criminology; political science
C) sociobiology; psychology
In The Scarlet Letter, why was Hester Prynne required to wear a scarlet “A” on her dress?
A) Sociologically, this served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming. B) Psychologically, it provided her the opportunity to face what she had become. C) It indicated she was at the head of her class in what she had done. D) It was a “badge of honor” that many other women wished they could achieve.
A) Sociologically, this served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming.
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
A) anomie B) latent dysfunction C) mass hysteria D) retreatism
All of the following acts qualify as a white collar crime EXCEPT for which one?
A) a bank teller robbing the First National bank B) a police officer taking $100 to refrain from writing a speeding ticket C) an executive writing off the corporation’s million-dollar fine as investment capital D) a businessperson classifying parking tickets as job hunting expenses on an income tax return
A) a bank teller robbing the First National bank
Explanations for deviance that focus on genetic predispositions to explain why individuals commit deviant acts are most aligned with which discipline?
A) sociobiology B) sociology C) psychology D) anthropology
The crime with the highest increase among women between 1992 and 2010 was ________.
A) drug offenses B) drunk driving C) bank robbery D) murder
B) drunk driving
Of the following, the crime with the highest recidivism rate within three years of release from prison is ________.
A) murder B) rape C) drug violations D) car theft
D) car theft
Based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?
A) They come from regions populated by large numbers of minorities. B) They are concentrated in urban areas with a population over 25,000. C) They are common in families living in poverty. D) They are from families that have a history of being involved in crime.
D) They are from families that have a history of being involved in crime.
The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
A) structural functionalism B) symbolic interactionism C) the conflict perspective D) the neo-conflict perspective
B) symbolic interactionism
Based on Merton’s typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?
A) They are all conformists. B) They are all retreatists. C) They are all rebels. D) They are all ritualists.