true or false: control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop to their respective groups and society.
Erving Goffman used the term ____ to refer to characteristics that discredit people
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called _______
In an effort to resist the label of ‘deviant,’ most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to theses rationales as ______.
techniques of neutralization
violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called _________
true or false: the theory of differential association suggests that people who associate with certain groups receive an “excess of definitions” about either deviance or conformity.
True or false: human sexuality illustrates how a group’s definitions of an act, and not the act itself, determines whether or not it is considered deviant.
Based on Merton’s typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?
they are all retreatists.
true or false: stripping and individual of his or her identity as a group member is an example of using a degradation ceremony to brand someone as an outsider.
in the scarlet letter, why was hester prynne required to wear a scarlet A on her dress?
Served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming.
the percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as __________
True or fals: shaming is most effective as a sanction when it is used by a formal organization such as a court of common pleas or other public tribunal.
Susie is a first year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie’s decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called __________
According to sociologist Martin Sanchez-Jankowski, boys in urban areas are motivated to join gangs for a number of reasons. Which of the following reasons LEAST qualifies as one of the reasons Jankowski discovered why urban youth join gangs?
to escape broken homes
The term white collar crime was coined by sociologist ________ to refer to crimes that people of respectable social status commit in the course of their occupation.