sociology chapter 12 Flashcard Example #46485

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As a social institution, the economy
a. produces goods and services.
b. guides the consumption of goods and services.
c. distributes goods and services.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all correct
Which social institution do most sociologists claim has the greatest effect on society as a whole?
a. the family
b. the economy
c. the political system
d. religion
b. economy
Over the course of human history, revolutionary changes in which of the following have brought great transformation to the economy?
a. production technology
b. family structure
c. population size
d. natural resources
a. production technology
The text describes three technological revolutions that transformed all of social life. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. the Agricultural Revolution
b. the Industrial Revolution
c. the Immigration Revolution
d. the Information Revolution
c. the immigration revolution
The Industrial Revolution was based on
a. the spread of cottage industry.
b. people beginning to work in their homes.
c. a decrease in productive specialization.
d. new sources of energy.
d. new sources of energy
The postindustrial economy is defined by
a. the spread of factories.
b. mass production of goods and services.
c. manufacturing of raw materials.
d. manufacturing of raw material
Which of the following statements about the Information Revolution is NOT correct?
a. There was a shift from making tangible products to generating ideas.
b. There was a shift from mechanical skills to literacy skills.
c. There was a shift from farming to turning raw materials into finished products.
d. There was a shift from working in factories to working almost anywhere.
c. there was a shift from farming to turning raw material into finished product
Which sector of the economy generates raw materials directly from the natural environment?
a. primary sector
b. secondary sector
c. tertiary sector
d. None of the other responses is correct.
a. primary sector
Turning metals into automobiles is work that falls within the
a. primary sector.
b. secondary sector.
c. tertiary sector.
d. All of these responses are correct.
b. secondary sector
The expansion of office work marks the growth of the economy’s
a. primary sector.
b. secondary sector.
c. tertiary sector.
d. None of the other responses is correct.
c. tertiary sector
In the United States, about what percentage of the labor force performs tertiary sector work?
a. 15 percent
b. 35 percent
c. 55 percent
d. 85 percent
d. 85%
The concept of “global economy” refers to
a. economic activity that moves across national borders.
b. the fact that only a few countries now contribute to the global economy.
c. the fact that economic output is under the control of global political leadership.
d. All of these responses are correct.
a. economic activity that moves across national borders
Globalization of the economy means that
a. world regions specialize in one sector of economic activity.
b. more and more products pass through several nations.
c. a small number of businesses represent a huge share of global economic output.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all correct
Capitalism is an economic system in which there is
a. government control of production.
b. private ownership of property.
c. pursuit of collective goals.
d. All of these responses are correct.
b. private ownership of property
In a capitalist economic system, “justice” amounts to
a. doing what is best for society’s poorest members.
b. everyone being more or less economically equal.
c. freedom of the marketplace allowing people to follow their self-interest.
d. All of these responses are correct.
c. freedom of the marketplace allowing people to follow their self interest
The United States is a mostly capitalist nation because
a. the vast majority of productive businesses are privately owned.
b. we have a system of free elections.
c. of our high living standards.
d. of the extensive government control of the economy.
a. the vast majority of productive businesses are privately owned
Socialism is an economic system in which there is
a. collective control of production.
b. private ownership of property.
c. pursuit of individual profit.
d. All of these responses are correct.
a. collective control of production
Which of the following DOES NOT describe the operation of a socialist economy?
a. collective orientation
b. government control of production
c. laissez-faire economy
d. command economy
c. laissez-faire economy
In a socialist economic system, “justice” amounts to
a. trying to meet the basic needs of all in a equal manner.
b. doing whatever helps boost company earnings.
c. freedom of the marketplace.
d. All of these responses are correct.
a. trying to meet the basic needs of all in equal manner
Which of the following concepts refers to a political and economic system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs?
a. capitalism
b. socialism
c. welfare capitalism
d. communism
c. welfare capitalism
The concept “state capitalism” refers to a system in which
a. the government owns and operates most economic enterprises.
b. privately-owned companies cooperate closely with the government.
c. the government owns but does not operate most economic enterprises.
d. large businesses control the government.
b. privately owned companies cooperate closely with the government
A sociological profile of men and women in the U.S. armed forces today reveals a large share of young people who
a. are of working-class background.
b. are looking to the military for a job.
c. join the military to earn money for college or just to get out of a small home town.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all correct
Concerning the issue of personal freedom, capitalist systems emphasize people’s _____, while socialist systems emphasize people’s _____.
a. collective needs; personal needs
b. freedom from basic want; freedom to pursue their self-interest
c. freedom to pursue their self-interest; freedom from basic want
d. social needs; material needs
c. freedom to pursue their self interest; interest; freedom from basic want
In the United States about what share of the population aged sixteen and older is in the paid labor force?
a. 19 percent
b. 39 percent
c. 59 percent
d. 79 percent
c. 59%
Which of all U.S. wars was the most deadly in terms of loss of (U.S.) lives?
a. the Civil War
b. World War I
c. World War II
d. the War in Iraq
a. the civil war
. In the United States, yesterday’s family farms have given way to
a. importing most foods from abroad.
b. collectively-run farming communes.
c. corporate agribusinesses.
d. smaller, individually-run farms.
c. corporate agribusiness
In recent decades, union membership
a. has risen in the United States and other high-income nations.
b. has risen in the United States, but not in other high-income nations.
c. has declined in the United States, but not in other high-income nations.
d. has declined in the United States and other high-income nations.
d. has declined in the united statesand other high income nations
Read the four descriptions below. Which of them DOES NOT apply to a profession?
a. having theoretical knowledge of a field
b. working for a large, well-established company
c. having authority over clients
d. professing a community, rather than an individual, orientation
b. working for a large, well established company
What percentage of today’s U.S. workers are self-employed?
a. 6.8 percent
b. 26.8 percent
c. 46.8 percent
d. 66.8 percent
a. 6.8 percent
Computers are having which of the following effects on the workplace?
a. Computers are deskilling labor.
b. Computers are limiting workplace interaction.
c. Computers enhance employers’ control of workers.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all correct
A conglomerate is
a. a giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations.
b. a corporation in the manufacturing sector.
c. a corporation engaged in both legal and illegal activity.
d. any company that completely dominates a market.
a. a giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations
The concept “oligopoly” refers to
a. any corporation with more than $1 billion in sales.
b. the largest company in a particular field.
c. domination of a market by a few producers.
d. a large company operating in all three economic sectors.
c. domination of a market by a few producers
Politics is a social institution that is defined in terms of a society’s
a. distribution of power, goals, and decision making.
b. technology.
c. income distribution.
d. means of production.
a. distribution of power goals and decision making
Max Weber defined power as
a. simply a reflection of wealth.
b. the ability to achieve desired ends, despite resistance.
c. the operation of a government.
d. the source of all bureaucracy.
b. the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance
Which of the following concepts refers to the formal organization that directs the political life of a society?
a. the political system
b. rational-legal authority
c. the power elite
d. government
d. government
Which of Weber’s types of authority rests on extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion in followers?
a. traditional authority
b. rational-legal authority
c. charismatic authority
d. None of these responses is correct.
c.charismatic authority
Which of the following concepts refers to a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation?
a. democracy
b. monarchy
c. totalitarianism
d. oligopoly
b. monarchy
Which of the following concepts refers to a political system in which power resides in the hands of the people as a whole?
a. democracy
b. monarchy
c. totalitarianism
d. aristocracy
a. democracy
For which of the following reasons might you argue that the United States is not truly democratic?
a. There is a lot of economic inequality.
b. Millions of bureaucratic officials are not elected.
c. Rich people have much more influence on our way of life than poor people.
d. All of these are correct.
d. all correct
Terrorism refers to
a. the use of military force by a nation state.
b. the use or threat of violence as a political strategy by an individual or group.
c. organized, armed conflict between groups.
d. unorganized, violent conflict between any two parties.
b. the use or threat of violence as a political stratefy by an individual group
Which statement about terrorism is TRUE?
a. Whether someone is a “terrorist” or a “freedom fighter” is often a matter of definition.
b. Democratic societies are especially vulnerable to terrorism.
c. Identifying and effectively targeting terrorists is usually difficult.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all correct
The concept “authoritarian” refers to a political system that
a. is well legitimated.
b. relies on more than one kind of authority.
c. denies most people participation in government.
d. has free elections.
c. denies most people participation in government
A totalitarian political system
a. mixes politics with religion.
b. is completely democratic.
c. is government without any bureaucracy.
d. concentrates power and closely regulates people’s lives.
d. concentrates power and closely regulates peoples lives
Which of the following nations comes closest to having a political system that is “totalitarian”?
a. Mexico
b. France
c. North Korea
d. Japan
c. north korea
In general, how does income affect the likelihood of voting in the United States?
a. Most high-income people vote; most low-income people do not.
b. People of all income levels are about equally likely to vote.
c. Most low-income people vote; most high-income people do not.
d. Higher income increases the share of people who vote among women, but not men.
a. most high income people vote; most low income do not
People with lower social standing in the United States tend to be _____ on social issues and _____ on economic issues.
a. conservative; conservative
b. liberal; liberal
c. liberal; conservative
d. conservative; liberal
d. conservative ; liberal
The National Rifle Association is an example of a(n)
a. special-interest group.
b. political action committee.
c. intergovernmental organization.
d. All of these responses are correct.
a. special interest group
In the United States, _____ people tend to vote Democratic, while _____ people mostly vote Republican.
a. rural; urban
b. urban; rural
c. high-income; low-income
d. conservative; liberal
b. urban; rural
In the 2012 presidential election, about what percentage of registered voters actually went to the polls?
a. about 88 percent
b. about 58 percent
c. about 38 percent
d. about 28 percent
b. 58%
Which of the following categories of the U.S. population is LEAST likely to vote in national elections?
a. African Americans
b. white, non-Hispanic people
c. Hispanic people
d. All of these categories of people are equally likely to vote.
c. hispanic people
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