Reference to something outside the text
“Maycomb County had recently been told it had nothing to fear but fear itself” pg 6
When the text goes back in time to explain the past
“When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we sometimes discussed the events leading to his accident.” pg 1
The allusion gives context and a place in time for the setting in Maycomb
Giving the reader a hint about what might happen in the future.
The rifle cracked. Tim Johnson leaped, flopped over and crumpled on the sidewalk in a brown and white heap. He didnt know what hit him.-page 127
Tim Johnson sounds like Tom Robinson which could indicate that Tom Robinson will die or that something bad will happen to him.
Exaggeration for dramatic effect
The flashback gives a perspective of a child, but with the reflection of an adult.
“Jem gave a reasonable description of Boo: Boo was about six-and-a-half feet tall judging from his tracks; he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch, that’s why his hands were bloodstained-if you ate an animal raw, you could never wash the blood off. There was a long jagged scar that ran across his face; what teeth he had were yellow and rotten; his eyes popped, and he drooled most of the time.” Pg 16
Comparison not using like or as
“Inside the house lived a malevolent phantom” pg 10
Giving something unhuman human qualities
“The chinaberry trees were malignant, hovering, alive.”-page 74
In this case personification is used to show how scared scout is of Boo because she thinks everything is out to get her.
Boo Radley isn’t actually a phantom, but this metaphor shows how Jem and Scout believe Boo is a horrible monster without even meeting him.
Lee uses a hyperbole about Boo Radley to make the point that Jem, Scout, and Dill believe that Boo Radley is a horrible monster.
A person or thing used to represent something else
“But remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy.” Pg 119
The mockingbird represents innocence because it doesn’t do anything wrong. The book is titled to kill a mockingbird because it is about the trial of tom robinson who is innocent.